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Welcome to the interactive web schedule for the 2019 Midwest Fish & Wildlife Conference! Please note, this event has passed. To return to the main Conference website, go to: www.midwestfw.org.

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CONFERENCE SCHEDULE UPDATES & CHANGES: As a result of the prolonged government shutdown, we experienced a number of cancellations and changes to the schedule. Cancellations and changes are listed here (as of January 26, 2019). 

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Invasive Species [clear filter]
Monday, January 28
 

10:40am EST

(SYMPOSIA-03) Testing the Role of Stream Flow on eDNA Abundance Using the Invasive Asian Clam Corbicula Spp
AUTHORS: Mark Davis, Illinois Natural History Survey; Amanda Curtis, University of Illinois; Jeremy Tiemann, Illinois Natural History Survey; Sarah Douglass, Illinois Natural History Survey; Eric Larson, University of Illinois

ABSTRACT: The efficacy of environmental DNA to assay the presence of invasive species hinges upon understanding the covariates influencing fate and transport. In lotic systems, these covariates may include biotic (e.g. invasive species density, seasonal activity patterns, etc.) and abiotic (e.g. stream discharge, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, pH, etc.) factors, as well as their complex interactions. To better understand fate and transport of eDNA in complex lotic systems, we assessed eDNA copy number for invasive Asian clams (Corbicula spp.) in paired freshwater streams in central Illinois via a primer/probe assay. We collected eDNA samples approximately every two weeks for one year, as well as during periods of high and low discharge. At each sampling period, we collected data for a number of water quality variables (including pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, and salinity), and we also conducted mid-summer quadrat sampling at each site to estimate Corbicula densities. Importantly, we placed our two sampling sites at USGS stream gages in order to access continuous discharge data. We anticipated that high stream flow events could either dilute eDNA concentrations or increase eDNA concentrations by mobilizing Corbicula DNA from the sediments. We found abundance of Corbicula eDNA as copy number increased with increasing water temperatures, likely reflecting a late spring and early summer reproductive peak for this species. However, we found a weak and non-significant negative relationship between stream flow and Corbicula eDNA abundance, despite having sampled at base flow and high flow conditions across multiple seasons. As such, we conclude that stream discharge may have little effect on estimates of eDNA abundance for common stream and river species like the invasive Asian clam, although more studies should seek to evaluate the role of stream and river flow regimes on eDNA performance.

Monday January 28, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

11:00am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-03) Choosing the Right eDNA Assay: Developing Standards for Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification
AUTHORS: Christopher M. Merkes, US Geological Survey; Katy E. Klymus, US Geological Survey; Richard F. Lance, US Army Corps of Engineers; Emy Monroe, US Fish & Wildlife Service; Catherine A. Richter, US Geological Survey; Caren S. Goldberg, Washington State University; Antoinette J. Piaggio, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Chris C. Wilson, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources; Joel P. Stokdyk, Margaret E. Hunter, Nathan L. Thompson, Craig A. Jackson, Jon J. Amberg – US Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Many advances have been made over the last ten years in the field of environmental DNA, and new assays exist for a wide range of target species of interest.  As this technology matures, it is necessary to make methods more standardized to allow better comparisons across studies and enable meta-analysis of species distributions.  One key aspect where this may be possible is with assay sensitivity.  Sensitivity is a critical measure especially when comparing data from multiple markers, and it can be easily described in two measurements: Limit of Detection (LoD; the lowest concentration that can reliably be detected) and Limit of Quantification (LoQ; the lowest concentration that can reliably be quantified).  To facilitate this, an R script has been developed to allow a person with minimal R-coding ability to easily and reliably analyze their data to determine LoD and LoQ of their assays as well as automatically generate plots of their data that puts the values into context for easy understanding.  Putting eDNA assay results into a standardized framework and enabling end users to understand the results more clearly will enhance the value of eDNA data and facilitate its wider application.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

11:10am EST

(FISHERIES: LIGHTNING TALK) Dietary Comparisons of Fishes in the US and Mongolian Mountain Steppe
AUTHORS: Mario Minder, Mark Pyron, Robert Shields – Ball State University; Emily Arsenault, Greg Matthews – University of Kansas; Bolortsetseg Erdenee, Drexel University

ABSTRACT: Compared the the United States, rivers in Monglolia are very minimally impacted by human development. As part of a larger macrosystems project we focused on the diets of fishes located in both the U.S. and Mongolian Mountain Steppe ecoregions. We analyzed gut contents from fishes collected across multiple sites on each continent to compare diets among species and funtional groups. Using the Manly-Chesson diet selectivity index we compared the contents of our stomachs to results of invertebrate surveys performed concurrently with our fish sampling.The results of this will be used in conjuction with future sampling efforts that will complete in the Summer of 2019 in the Mongolian Grassland.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:10am - 11:20am EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM A/B

11:20am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-03) Refinement of eDNA as an Early Monitoring Tool at the Landscape-level: Study Design Considerations
AUTHORS: Emy Monroe, Erica Mize – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Richard Erickson, Christopher Merkes – US Geological Survey; Nicholas Berndt, Katherine Bockrath, Jeena Credico, Nikolas Grueneis, Jenna Merry, Kyle Mosel, Maren Tuttle-Lau, Kyle Von Ruden, Zebadiah Woiak, Kelly Baerwaldt, Sam Finney – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Jon Amberg, US Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Natural resource managers use data from survey or monitoring efforts that use a wide variety of tools. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a genetic surveillance tool for detecting species and holds potential as a tool for large-scale monitoring programs.  Two challenges of eDNA-based studies are imperfect capture of eDNA in collection samples (e.g., water field samples) and imperfect detection of eDNA using molecular methods (e.g., quantitative PCR), which create uncertainty about sample designs for eDNA-based monitoring.  We used an occurrence model to address these challenges and determine how many  samples were required to detect species using eDNA and to examine when and where to take samples.  Water samples were collected from three different habitat types in the Upper Mississippi River when both Bighead Carp and Silver Carp were known to be present based on telemetry detections.  Each habitat type was sampled during April, May and November.  Detections of eDNA for both species varied across sites and months, but were generally low, 0 - 19.3% of samples were positive for eDNA.  Additionally, we found statistical artifacts where sample eDNA capture probabilities would artificially inflate estimates of molecular detection probabilities.  Overall, we found that eDNA-based sampling holds promise to be a powerful monitoring tool for resource managers, however, limitations of eDNA-based sampling include different biological and ecological characteristics of target species as well as aspects of different physical environments that impact the implementation of these methods.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:20am - 11:40am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

11:40am EST

(CANCELLED) (FISHERIES: LIGHTNING TALK) Location, Location, Location: Identifying Preferential Drifting and Swimming Paths for Grass Carp Eggs and Larvae Under Different Flow Conditions
AUTHORS: Andres Prada, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Amy George, Ben Stahlschmidt, Duane Chapman – USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center; Rafael O. Tinoco, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT: To monitor and control the spread of invasive fish species, such as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), we need to know where to find them. Natural streams have complex cross sections with varied bed roughness and in-stream obstructions that alter flow conditions and influence the transport of grass carp during its early life stages. To identify how changes in mean velocity, vorticity, and turbulence levels affect the drifting and swimming patterns of eggs and larval grass carp, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments in a recirculating flume. Live diploid grass carp eggs were stocked and monitored for 80 consecutive hours. We investigated three scenarios: 1) a gravel bump, 2) vertical rigid pier, and 3) rigid submerged vegetation. We used quantitative imaging to track eggs and larvae throughout the duration of each test, obtaining their preferred spatial distribution, as well as drifting and swimming trajectories under each flow scenario. We found clear correlations between the larval spatial distributions and flow conditions characterized through particle image velocimetry. Differences between identified trajectories for eggs and larvae at various developmental stages show a clear active response to spatially heterogeneous flow fields, where larvae actively avoided areas of high shear, preferring zones of lower turbulence and low vorticity levels. Data show that there is not only a threshold mean velocity which exceeds the swimming ability of the larvae, but also thresholds for turbulence statistics that define whether the eggs or larvae can be found at specific zones in natural streams. Since the three chosen scenarios generate turbulence and coherent flow structures at multiple scales at various orientations, our findings can be applied to inform detection and capture methods in natural streams.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:40am - 11:50am EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM A/B

11:40am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-03) Validation and Comparative Performance Testing of Markers Useful for the Detection of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus)
AUTHORS: Christopher B. Rees, Theodore W. Lewis, Sandra Keppner, Joshua Newhard, Aaron P. Maloy, Meredith L. Bartron – U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

ABSTRACT: Populations of Northern snakehead (Channa argus) have been introduced in the Lower Hudson, Bronx, and Rondout watersheds of New York, Lower Delaware watershed of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the Lower Susquehanna watershed of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Because these observations are in close proximity to Great Lakes tributaries, Northern snakehead constitute a species of high invasion concern for natural resource agencies of Great Lakes connected waters. Traditional gear capture of Northern snakehead at low densities in their established range can be difficult due to the shallow, vegetation-rich habitat they typically occupy. As a result, significant environmental DNA (eDNA) detection efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partner agencies in portions of the Oswego River drainage and canal system of New York have been explored. In any eDNA detection effort, it is important to have confidence in the accuracy of the markers used, and particularly when the effort involves the detection of aquatic invasive species where management and/or response actions may be taken. Here we highlight results from validation and comparative performance testing of several eDNA markers designed to detect Northern snakehead DNA and detection results of the 2018 environmental sampling efforts.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:40am - 12:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-03) Targeting eDNA Surveys for the Invasive Black Carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus
AUTHORS: Richard F Lance, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center; Xin Guan, Bennett Aerospace; Emy M. Monroe, Katherine D. Bockrath, Erica L. Mize – Whitney Genetics Laboratory, Midwest Fisheries Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Chris B. Rees, Northeast Fishery Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Kelly L. Baerwaldt, Midwest Fisheries Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

ABSTRACT: The Black Carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is an invasive species within the Mississippi River drainage that appears to be undergoing population growth and range expansion. Black carp are molluscivores that potentially threaten significant components of North America's rich indigenous diversity of freshwater bivalves. In order to help determine the presence of black carp in various waters and habitats, and to help track its spread, we have developed a suite of environmental DNA (eDNA) markers for this species. The markers were developed using whole mitochondrial genomes from 29 black carp from three countries and target three different mitochondrial DNA genes. The markers were further tested for reliability with a total of 41 black carp DNA samples and for specificity against DNA from numerous co-occurring fish species and against samples of natural waters free of black carp. Further tests to detect black carp in natural waters proved challenging, but ultimately successful. We further report on studies of which water fractions contain the bulk of black carp eDNA (the answer appears to be largely habitat dependent) and on the efficiency of different sampling options.

Monday January 28, 2019 1:20pm - 1:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:40pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-03) Environmental DNA Monitoring of Effectiveness of Bigheaded Carp Removal from Creve Coeur Lake, Missouri
AUTHORS: Catherine A. Richter, Katy E. Klymus, Nathan Thompson, Jeffrey C. Jolley, Duane C. Chapman – U.S. Geological Survey; PRESENTER: Rick Lance

ABSTRACT: Creve Coeur Lake is a large natural floodplain lake intermittently connected to the Missouri River near St. Louis, Missouri. The lake has been invaded by Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), collectively known as Bigheaded Carp. Both are native to Asia. The invasion has resulted in impairment of the native crappie (Pomoxis spp.) fishery, and hazards to recreational users. Fish can enter the lake from the Missouri River only during high water events. During the winter of 2017-2018, an intensive removal effort was conducted using the unified fishing method. A total of approximately 108,129 kg of Bigheaded Carp was removed from the lake in February 2018. Monitoring of Bigheaded Carp environmental DNA (eDNA) concentrations was conducted at intervals before and after the removal effort. Water was sampled at 53 locations equally spaced along transects covering the entire surface area of Creve Coeur Lake, a smaller upstream connected lake (Mallard Lake), and the channel between the two lakes. We measured eDNA concentrations with quantitative PCR using two marker sets specific to the genus Hypophthalmichthys, and thus able to detect and quantify DNA from both species with equal efficiency. Our results showed a decrease in eDNA concentration with decreasing water temperature over three sampling events before the removal effort, in October 2017, November 2017, and January 2018. After the removal effort, we observed an increase in eDNA in March 2018, possibly resulting from the presence of injured fish and carcasses, followed by a sharp decrease in eDNA in April 2018. Our results illustrate the utility of eDNA monitoring of management actions, the advantages of repeated sampling over time, and some challenges associated with this application of eDNA analysis.

Monday January 28, 2019 1:40pm - 2:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

2:00pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-03) Determine What Fishes Adult Sea Lamprey Parasitized by Barcoding DNA in Their Feces
AUTHORS: Nicholas Johnson, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center; Chris Merkes, Joel Putnam – U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

ABSTRACT: Sea lamprey are controlled in the Great Lakes to reduce damage to valuable fisheries. Sea lamprey control is effective, but damage caused by remaining sea lamprey is poorly defined because because sea lamprey feed on blood and traditional gut content analysis has not possible.  Here, we test the concept that sea lamprey diet can be quantified by barcoding DNA in sea lamprey feces.  Specifically, we determined the percentage of fecal samples containing measureable DNA from host fishes when collected from (1) recently fed parasitic sea lamprey, (2) fasted parasitic sea lamprey transitioning to the adult stage, and (3) adult sea lamprey captured from a spawning stream.   If successful, the method could help managers better interpret lake trout wounding rates by providing insight as to how often hosts alternative to lake trout are targeted by sea lamprey. Ultimately, our vision is that adult sea lamprey assessment in each Great Lake may be able to produce an annual estimate of abundance and an estimate what fishes that cohort of adult sea lamprey were feeding on, so that fish managers could estimate damage caused to specific fish stocks.

Monday January 28, 2019 2:00pm - 2:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

2:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-04) Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trends of Predator Diets in Lake Huron
AUTHORS: Katie Kierczynski, Michigan State University; Brian Roth, Michigan State University; Ed Roseman, USGS Great Lakes Science Center; Robin DeBruyne, University of Toledo/USGS Great Lakes Science Center

ABSTRACT: Lake Huron has undergone dramatic changes in the past few decades. Introductions of non-native species have drastically altered the food web and nutrient pathways. In the mid-2000s, alewife collapsed closely followed by Chinook salmon. Since then, some native prey species (e.g. bloaters) and some invasive species (e.g. round goby) have increased in abundance. Populations of native predators walleye and lake trout have also increased substantially, but there are now questions regarding the sustainability of current predator populations as well as uncertainty regarding connections among food web members given changes in prey populations and shifts in productivity. Predator diets can be used as evidence that could shed light on the sustainability of the food web. However, the last angler-caught predator diet study in Lake Huron was conducted between 2009 and 2011 (Roseman et al. 2014). That study demonstrated increased reliance on round goby for lake trout and walleye, but Chinook salmon continued to be dependent on alewife despite their exceptionally low abundance. The goals of the present study are to investigate how predator-prey relationships have changed since the 2009-2011 study and to determine spatial patterns and temporal trends in diet composition. We hypothesize that a) consumption of round goby will have increased for native predators, b) consumption of bloaters will have increased for all predator species, c) Chinook salmon will continue to be dependent on alewife, and d) diets will be heterogeneous across space and time. This data will give managers a more thorough understanding of predator-prey interactions in Lake Huron, and will be used to update models used by managers to evaluate the sustainability of current predator levels and stocking strategies.

Monday January 28, 2019 2:20pm - 2:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

2:40pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-04) Reevaluation of Wild Juvenile Lake Trout Spatial Distribution and Diets in Lake Huron (2008 - 2017)
AUTHORS: Taaja R. Tucker, University of Toledo; Edward F. Roseman, Stephen C. Riley, Timothy P. O’Brien, Darryl W. Hondorp, Dustin A. Bowser, Scott A. Jackson – US Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation efforts of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron have resulted in increased recruitment and capture of young wild lake trout in annual bottom trawl surveys conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. To better understand the spatial distribution and food habits of wild juvenile lake trout, we performed diet analyses on 311 of 343 fish captured in bottom trawls at six ports in Lake Huron during October/November 2008–2017. Lake trout ranged in size from 27 to 371 mm, representing approximately three age classes. Most of the fish (83%) were captured at 46–64 m depths at the two northernmost ports, typically below the thermocline. Mysis diluviana was the most prevalent diet item, found in 222 of 299 fish with non-empty stomachs (74%), followed by Bythotrephes longimanus (31%), and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus; 11%). Young-of-year lake trout (Mysis and Daphnia, while larger lake trout converted to mostly fish-based diets at age 2+. Compared to a previous diet analysis of young Lake Huron lake trout from 2004–2006, fish in the current study consumed more unique prey items (12 vs. 6) and fish species, although many of the lake trout in the current study were larger than those analyzed in the past (74–120 mm). While the variety of taxa consumed by young lake trout has increased since the last study period, the most commonly observed prey items after Mysis were nonnative taxa. Mysis remain an important early food for lake trout in Lake Huron.

Monday January 28, 2019 2:40pm - 3:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-04) Diet Complexity of Lake Michigan Salmonids
AUTHORS: Benjamin Leonhardt, Purdue University; Benjamin Turschak, Michigan Department of Natural Resources; Austin Happel, Colorado State University; Sergiusz Czesny, University of Illinois, Illinois Natural History Survey; Harvey Boostma, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Jacques Rinchard, SUNY-Brockport; Matt Kornis, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Charles Bronte, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Tomas Höök, Purdue University, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant

ABSTRACT: Documenting trophic relationships in aquatic ecosystems can facilitate understanding of not only system processes, but also the potential responses of food webs to stressors.  In Lake Michigan, the introduction of invasive species (e.g., zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis; round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) and reduced nutrient loading has resulted in changes in nutrient dynamics and community composition over the past two decades. As a result, abundances of many forage fish have declined, including alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which have historically supported the five dominant salmonid species of Lake Michigan (brown trout, Salmo trutta; Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch; lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). With these ecosystem changes, there is uncertainty as to the extent of how different species of salmonids will transition to alternative prey items (e.g., round goby). We investigated the diet complexity of Lake Michigan salmonids by evaluating stomach content composition, diet diversity, and lengths of alewife consumed. Stomachs collected in 2015 and 2016 in Lake Michigan revealed that Chinook salmon almost exclusively consumed alewife and had a lower diet diversity compared to the other four species, which consumed round goby (brown trout and lake trout), aquatic invertebrates (Coho salmon), and terrestrial invertebrates (rainbow trout) in addition to alewife. Additionally, salmonid species appeared to consume the entire size range of alewife that were available to them despite year to year changes in alewife length availability. Due to their reliance on alewife, it is likely that Chinook salmon may be more negatively impacted than other salmonid species if patterns of alewife decline continue in Lake Michigan.

Monday January 28, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:20pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 1) Community Shifts in the Middle Mississippi River Relative to the Introduction of Two Hypophthalmichthys Carps
AUTHORS: Christopher Schwinghamer, Quinton Phelps, Kyle Hartman – West Virginia University

ABSTRACT: Aquatic invasive species can have broad impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Through direct and indirect competition, alteration of existing habitats, and increased predation pressure, non-native species can alter the composition of native fish communities. Two non-native carps from the genus Hypophthalmichthys, Silver H. molitrix and Bighead H. nobilis carps, were introduced into the Mississippi River Basin in the 1970’s through escape from aquaculture facilities and have established populations throughout much of the basin. Due to their planktivorous diets, these non-native invaders possess a high likelihood for competition with native fishes. This creates the potential for shifts in community composition in reaches where they are present. One such reach, in which Silver and Bighead carp established in 2004, is the Middle Mississippi River. Principal response curve analyses of the fish community data was performed to evaluate shift in community composition over time using long term monitoring data. Introductions of these carps appears to have altered native fish communities. Results suggest dramatic declines in abundance of Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, while populations of benthic omnivores such as catfish and suckers and abundant prey species may be slightly increasing post-carp establishment. Gizzard Shad, a highly abundant prey species, represent the most abundant native planktivore who likely share the largest dietary overlap and thus highest intensity of competition with the carps. While some species may be experiencing increased abundances, the magnitude of their increase in far exceeded by the declines in Gizzard Shad populations. As such, proper management of invasive carp populations is vital to maintaining healthy fish communities in the Middle Mississippi River.

Monday January 28, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

4:00pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 1) History and Issues in Controlling the Bighead and Silver Carps in the Mississippi Basin
AUTHORS: Maurice Sadowsky, President, MJSTI Corp.

ABSTRACT: The bighead and silver carps (combined bigheaded) are an alien invasive species that escaped from aquaculture around 1980.  About 35 years later an estimated 12 to 30 million fish inhabit about 6,400 miles of the Mississippi Basin.  Every year the fish expand their territory and or their bio-mass density on the margins of their habit.The paper uses literature and Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee (ACRCC) and other government reports to review the programs to control these fish.  The ACRCC funds three major efforts: barriers, education/early detection/enforcement and population control.  Each division will be reviewed.The paper will then discuss the realities of controlling the bigheaded carp.

Monday January 28, 2019 4:00pm - 4:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

4:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-04) Energy Pathways to Prey Fishes Across a Productivity Gradient: A Case-study in the Laurentian Great Lakes
AUTHORS: Anne Scofield, Paris Collingsworth, Tomas Höök – Purdue University; David Bunnell, USGS Great Lakes Science Center; Aaron Fisk, University of Windsor Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research; Tim Johnson, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources; Brian Weidel, USGS Lake Ontario Biological Station

ABSTRACT: Natural stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (d<sup>15</sup>N) and carbon (d<sup>13</sup>C) have proven to be valuable tools for identifying basal energy sources for fish production and describing trophic complexity, but cross-lake comparisons of stable isotope data are often limited by challenges associated with standardizing study design and isotopic baselines. Over the past decade, a great number of resources have been invested to generate stable isotope data for the lower food web and prey fishes across all five of the Great Lakes through the bi-national Cooperative Science and Monitoring Initiative (CSMI), providing opportunities for robust cross-lake comparisons. In this study, we investigate differences in nearshore subsidies and trophic transfer efficiencies to prey fish across the productivity gradient observed in the Great Lakes, which range from eutrophic (western Lake Erie) to ultra-oligotrophic (e.g., Lake Superior). Using rainbow smelt as a case study, we examine the basal carbon sources and trophic positions of prey fish in the offshore regions of the five lakes. We also consider how differences in the densities on non-native species, such as dreissenid mussels, may affect resource distribution and energy flow to fishes. Quantifying how trophic structures in lakes differ across a productivity gradient can help elucidate the consequences of human actions such as nutrient management programs, fish stocking, and non-native species introductions.

Monday January 28, 2019 4:20pm - 4:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

4:20pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 1) Examination of a Modular Electrical Barrier for Deterring Fish Movements
AUTHORS: Scott F Collins, Anthony Porreca, Michael Nannini, Joseph Parkos III, David Wahl – INHS

ABSTRACT: A modular electrical barrier (MEB) was developed as a tool to deter or disrupt the movement of fishes for the purposes of an adaptive approach to pest management.  The design required a non-physical barrier that would not impede boat traffic or floating debris, sufficient power to generate an electrical field at a diverse set of locations, modularity such that the MEB can be transported to logistically feasible locations, and be safely operable by fisheries professionals. The MEB system consists of generators which provide power to one or multiple 5-kW pulsers which modulate the electrical output to the electrodes (anode and cathode steel cables).  Individual pulsers can be linked to fit location dimensions (depth, width, conductivity). To test the effectiveness of the MEB, we conducted an experiment consisting of two trials in separate 0.4-ha ponds.  For each trial, we constructed a large RFID antenna (1 × 30 m) and PIT-tagged (23 × 3.85 mm HDX tags) individual fish from 8 species (4 invasive, 3 native) in order to track fish activity (total detections; average detections) in response to operation of the MEB.  When the MEB was off, ambient fish activity ranged from 500-1600 detections per day.  While the MEB was on, the number of fish detections dropped to only 7 total (6 or 0.05% of trial 1; 1 or 0.01% of trial 2), and most detections were associated with fish mortality.  After the MEB was turned off, fish detections increased after a few hours, and fish activity returned to peak numbers after 4.5 days.  Findings from this experiment indicate that the MEB can greatly deter fish movements; however, like all non-physical barriers, it may not be 100% effective at stopping fish.

Monday January 28, 2019 4:20pm - 4:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

4:40pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 1) Selective, Safe and Low Cost Piscicide
AUTHORS: Maurice Sadowsky, President, MJSTI Corp.

ABSTRACT: MJSTI proved a selective, safe and low-cost fish pesticide with the goal of controlling the bighead and silver carps (bigheaded carps).  The technology and experiments will be discussed and compared to the USGS antimycin A/beeswax formulation (with patent lawyers’ approval).  The US patent should be submitted in 2018.  The formulation is selective as a digestive poison.  It is safe using FDA additives.  The average raw material cost is 1/12 to 1/30<sup>th</sup> of MJSTI’s estimated USGS antimycin A/beeswax raw material cost.  The EPA registration should be for a new formulation since the component chemicals are all EPA registered pesticide ingredients.  The technology has application for other fish including common carp and potentially grass carp.

Monday January 28, 2019 4:40pm - 5:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C
 
Tuesday, January 29
 

10:20am EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) Using Carbon Dioxide to Control Aquatic Invasive Species
AUTHORS: Cory Suski, University of Illinois; Kim Fredricks, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide is a commonly occurring, natural compound that is found in aquatic environments. Recently there has been an interest in using zones of elevated carbon dioxide to act as a movement deterrent for both invasive fishes and invertebrates. Despite the promise of this tool to aid in the control of aquatic nuisance species, there are a number of questions and concerns that arise with its use, particularly related to impacts on non-target organisms and the receiving environment. The current talk will provide an overview of carbon dioxide in aquatic environments, and show how carbon dioxide can impact both invertebrates and vertebrates, ranging from physiological disturbances to ion disequilibrium to behavioral changes. The impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on the receiving environment will be discussed, along with summary of factors influencing individual variation to high CO<sub>2</sub>. Directions for future research and unanswered questions will also be outlined. Together, this presentation will provide an overview of how elevated carbon dioxide can impact aquatic ecosystems, and how it can function as a non-physical deterrent for aquatic invasive species.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 10:20am - 10:40am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

10:40am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-09) Development of Carbon Dioxide as a Tool for Invasive Fish Management
AUTHORS: Aaron Cupp, U.S. Geological Survey; David Smith, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Cory Suski, University of Illinois; Kim Fredricks, U.S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is being developed as a new fisheries control chemical. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fish consistently avoid areas of elevated CO<sub>2</sub> when given access to other freshwater sources. Results from these studies suggest that resource managers could apply CO<sub>2</sub> at pinch-point or other key management locations within rivers to block upstream migration of invasive fishes (e.g. Asian carps, sea lamprey, round goby). A full-scale demonstration of this deterrent technology is being planned for 2019 at a navigational lock to better determine the costs, effectiveness, safety and overall feasibility of CO<sub>2</sub> as a fish deterrent method. In addition to using CO<sub>2</sub> as a behavioral deterrent, other recent studies have also demonstrated that CO<sub>2</sub> is an effective non-selective piscicide (fish toxicant). Carbon dioxide injected under-ice using various delivery methods was effective at reducing the overwinter survival of several non-native cyprinids. Further development of CO<sub>2</sub> as a piscicide could give managers an inexpensive, safe, and effective method to control invasive fish populations. Results from previous studies using CO<sub>2</sub> as a behavioral deterrent and piscicide will be discussed with specific focus on upcoming field studies aimed at transitioning CO<sub>2</sub> into a useful management tool.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

11:00am EST

(SYMPOSIA-08) Synthesizing the Science to Support Management of Invasive Plants
AUTHORS: Kurt P. Kowalski, U.S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: The invasion of non-native wetland plants is one of the many stressors degrading Lake Erie and surrounding watersheds. Once established, invasive plants often outcompete native plants, impair fish and wildlife habitat, degrade recreational opportunities, increase fire hazard, and reduce property values. Resource managers and regional funding agencies (e.g., the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative) invest a significant amount of resources to address this high priority issue. However, the conventional approaches to invasive plant management (e.g., herbicide, cutting, burning, flooding) often only provide temporary control, are difficult to maintain at the landscape scale, and are not species specific. Efforts to collaborate on a local scale (e.g., Cooperative Weed Management Areas) and at the basin-wide scale (e.g., Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative, Phragmites Adaptive Management Framework) are maximizing the impact of investments, but additional management options are desired by resource managers. Phragmites australis, Typha spp., Butomus umbellatus, Phalaris arundinacea, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Hydrilla verticillata, and Myriophyllum spicatum are just a few of the many non-native plant species found in Lake Erie coastal habitats. Although all of these species are being managed at some level, a few widespread species (e.g., Phragmites) are very visible, of great concern to private and public landowners, and targeted for intensive research efforts into new management approaches that can be adapted to the other species. For example, recent advances have revealed the extensive suite of microbes (e.g., bacteria, fungi) that live symbiotically in and around non-native Phragmites. The relationship between microbes and the plant can enhance the plant’s ability to outcompete native plants and is a target for new control approaches (e.g., disrupting important mutualisms). Ongoing research focused on Phragmites is laying the groundwork for application to other undesirable non-native plants and enhancing the growth of desirable native or crop species.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
HOPE BALLROOM B

11:20am EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) The Use of Carbon Dioxide to Remove Resident Piscivorous Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Tracy Fish Collection Facility in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California
AUTHORS: Brandon J. Wu, Rene C. Reyes, Christopher L. Hart – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; Kevin K. Kumagai, HTI-VEMCO USA, Inc.; Scott A. Porter, Michael R. Trask – U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

ABSTRACT: As an integral part of the Central Valley Project, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), Tracy Fish Collection Facility (TFCF; Byron, California) functions to salvage fish from Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta water exported south by the C.W. “Bill” Jones Pumping Plant.  Predation by resident piscivorous fish is a contributing factor to fish loss at the TFCF and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are generally considered the most prevalent piscivorous fish species within the facility.  To improve fish salvage and meet requirements mandated by the most recent National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion, Reclamation is investigating the use of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) as an anesthetic to remove predatory fish from the TFCF system.  The treatment of various water conveyance channels and components of the TFCF with CO<sub>2</sub> has demonstrated that elevated CO<sub>2 </sub>concentrations (50–350 mg/L) increase the number and size of Striped Bass in collection tanks (salvaged), suggesting that this application is feasible and effective.  In addition, acoustically tagged Striped Bass appeared to exhibit an avoidance response to elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations.  The removal of acoustically tagged and wild Striped Bass during CO<sub>2</sub> treatment allowed for calculation of removal efficiency as well as estimation of Striped Bass population within the TFCF system at the time of testing.  Efforts are currently underway to estimate optimal CO<sub>2</sub> concentration for removal of Striped Bass based on removal efficiency and 96-hour post treatment survival.  Preliminary results suggest that the optimal CO<sub>2</sub> concentration for Striped Bass removal is approximately 165 mg/L.  Future efforts will focus on increasing removal efficiency in TFCF collection tanks as well as developing methods to direct piscivorous fish out of the facility to a location where there is no impact on salvageable fish.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 11:20am - 11:40am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) Effects of Sociability and Conspecifics on CO2 Avoidance in Fish
AUTHORS: Emily K. Tucker, Cory D. Suski – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) has been proposed as a non-physical deterrent to prevent the movement of fishes in freshwater systems. Previous studies have shown that fish of different species tend to avoid CO<sub>2</sub> at 50,000-75,000 µatm, but there is also wide variation between individual fish in the amount of CO<sub>2</sub> required to elicit avoidance. In many of these previous studies, fish were tested for CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance individually. Many fish species, including bigheaded carp, are frequently found in groups, and it is not known if the response of groups of fish to CO<sub>2</sub> exposure is consistent with the response of individuals. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to define CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance in fish that are part of a social group relative to when tested individually. Bluegill were first tested individually in a "shuttle box" choice assay, to define their initial avoidance threshold. All bluegill were then assigned to groups for a social network assay to determine the social personality type of each fish. Finally, each social group was tested together in the shuttle box to define the CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance threshold of the group. Results indicate that fish in a social group that are exposed to CO<sub>2</sub> will shuttle at an average of 6 times lower partial pressures of CO<sub>2</sub> (pCO<sub>2</sub>) than fish tested individually, and that fish in groups had significantly less individual variation in CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance thresholds than fish that were not in groups. However, social personality type was not associated with shuttling behavior. Our results indicate that individual variation in CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance is greatly reduced when fish are in social groups. This has important implications for the use of CO<sub>2</sub> in fisheries management, as less CO<sub>2</sub> might be needed to deter groups of fish relative to deterring individuals.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 1:20pm - 1:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:40pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide to Stimulate Emergence of Red Swamp Crayfish from Invaded Ponds
AUTHORS: Jim Stoeckel, Rebecca Tucker, Hisham Abdelrahman – Auburn University; Aaron Cupps, Ann Allert, Kim Fredricks – U.S. Geological Survey; Seth Herbst, Sara Thomas – Michigan Department of Natural Resources; Brian Roth, Michigan State University

ABSTRACT: Reduction of invasive crayfish is a major challenge facing natural resource managers.  We evaluated the ability of carbon dioxide to induce red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to leave ponds, and the ability of terrestrial shelters to facilitate collection after emergence.  We placed 100 red swamp crayfish in ~14 x 14 m experimental ponds at Auburn University, Alabama.  Tanks equipped with regulators and diffusers were used to inject CO<sub>2</sub> into experimental ponds whereas control ponds received no CO<sub>2</sub>.  Silt fencing was installed around ponds such that the bottom 2 feet was folded on the ground to serve as shelter, whereas the upper foot was installed vertically on fence posts to serve as a barrier.  Carbon dioxide was elevated to =200 mg/L in experimental ponds while pH was depressed to ~5.5.  Dissolved oxygen remained > 5 mg/L.  Greater than 50% of crayfish emerged within 6 hours.  Of these, 95% remained in sheltered areas underneath the folded fencing. They did not burrow under the fencing and were easily collected.  When a small inflow of non-carbonated fresh water was provided to a pond to simulate an underwater spring, crayfish sought shelter within this small inflow area.  Only 6% exited the pond even though CO<sub>2</sub> quickly reached = 200 mg/L in the surrounding waters.  Results thus far show that carbon dioxide can cause a large proportion of crayfish to emerge from ponds and seek terrestrial shelter within a short time.  Small inflows of non-carbonated water from inlets or springs can provide refuges that may severely limit emergence.  However, if these refuge areas can be identified, they may facilitate removal via trapping or seining.  Results from an invaded retention-pond trial in Michigan are currently being analyzed and will also be presented.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 1:40pm - 2:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:40pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-11) Full Lake Eradication of Quagga Mussels Using Low Doses of EarthTec QZ Ionic Copper
AUTHORS: David Hammond, Ph.D., Earth Science Laboratories, Inc.;Gavin Ferris, M.S., Solitude Lake Management, Inc.

ABSTRACT: In 2017 Earth Science Labs, Inc. designed and supervised a treatment protocol to eradicate invasive quagga mussels from the lake at Billmeyer Quarry in Pennsylvania.  The treatment consisted of 3 separate applications of a liquid formulation of ionic copper called EarthTec QZ, delivered over a period of 37 days.  Mussel mortality was determined through use of caged adult mussels that were suspended at different locations and depths throughout the lake.  Mussels began to die within 3 days of the initiation of treatment, particularly in the top 20 feet of the water body.  The death of the last caged mussel was confirmed 40 days after the initiation of treatment, in a cage that had been placed at a depth of 30 feet below the surface.  Both biological and physicochemical data collected during the treatment period revealed that there was a pronounced thermocline at 25-35 foot depth.  Such stratification is historically typical for this lake.  The layer of water in the thermocline resisted mixing, which explains why mussels located above and below the thermocline were eradicated quickly, yet those within the thermocline required targeted treatment techniques and 40 days to succumb to 100% mortality.  Microscopic analysis of plankton tows and visual inspection of the shoreline after partial pump-down of the quarry in early November indicated that all veligers and adults were successfully exterminated.  Analysis of eDNA taken in December 2017 also suggests the eradication was complete.  The cumulative sum of copper applied throughout the entire course of treatment totaled 0.44 mg/L – noteworthy because it is less than half the concentration EPA allows (1.0 mg/L) in a single algaecide treatment.  The authors are cautiously optimistic that this is the first recorded instance of eradicating quagga mussels from an entire lake.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 1:40pm - 2:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

2:00pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-09) Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Dreissenid Mussels and Its Use a Management Tool
AUTHORS: Diane Waller, USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center; Michelle Bartsch, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center; Eric Lord, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center.

ABSTRACT: Tools to control dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) populations currently rely heavily on chemical molluscicides that can be both costly and have the potential to be environmentally harmful if misused. Carbon dioxide may be a more cost-effective and environmentally neutral option for controlling dreissenid mussel populations. Past studies have demonstrated that carbon dioxide is lethal to several species of invasive molluscs, including zebra mussels, Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), and New Zealand mud snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). We evaluated the effects of various treatment regimens [i.e., exposure duration and pCO<sub>2 </sub>(partial pressure of carbon dioxide)] on mortality, byssal thread formation and attachment, and narcotization behavior of adult zebra mussels. Percent mortality and time to death were determined at three temperatures across a range of pCO<sub>2</sub> levels (70,000 – 250,000 µm). Our results indicated that elevated PCO<sub>2</sub> exposure induced narcotization and reduced attachment of zebra mussels within 24 h. Time to death was inversely correlated with water temperature and pCO<sub>2</sub> and ranged from 3 – 13 d. The potential application of carbon dioxide into an integrated pest management program for dreissenid mussels will be discussed.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:00pm - 2:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

2:00pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-10) Fishes of Ohio Inventory and Distribution Project
AUTHORS: Brian J. Zimmerman, The Ohio State University; Dan Rice, (retired) Division of Natural Areas and Preserves (ODNR); Marc R. Kibbey, The Ohio State University; Marymegan Daly, PhD, The Ohio State University

ABSTRACT: Milton Trautman’s classic book, “The Fishes of Ohio,” was published in 1981 and did an excellent job presenting the distribution and status of Ohio’s fish fauna at the time. In subsequent decades, fish communities of Ohio have changed in composition and distribution. In 2011, we began an inventory of the current status of all fish species found in Ohio. Some of these changes we have documented are positive, including the large scale expansion of many species of riverine fish that have been characterized as sensitive to water quality. Other changes point towards declines, particularly in species reliant on wetland or glacial lake habitats. In addition to trends in distribution and abundance of native species, we see significant impact in the occurrence of non-indigenous species that were not documented by Trautman. The results of the 2011-2017 distribution surveys are summarized in our 2018 field guide “A Naturalist Guide to the Fishes of Ohio” by Dan Rice and Brian Zimmerman.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:00pm - 2:20pm EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM A/B

2:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) Responses of Native Freshwater Mussels (Lampsilis) to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Acute and Chronic Exposures
AUTHORS: Michelle Bartsch, Diane Waller – US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

ABSTRACT: The potential use of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) as a control tool for Asian carp and dreissenid mussels has prompted investigation into the effects of elevated pCO2, under different scenarios, on native unionid mussels. We measured the lethal and sublethal responses of juvenile fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and the federally endangered Higgins’ eye (L. higginsii) mussels to elevated pCO<sub>2</sub> in acute (96 h) and chronic (28 d) exposures. The lethal and sublethal responses included: survival, growth, byssal thread formation, behavior, and gene expression. In acute exposures, juvenile mussel survival was 100% after exposure to concentrations of 178 to 457 mg/L CO<sub>2</sub>. However, burial behavior and byssal thread formation were adversely affected during CO<sub>2</sub> exposure. Juvenile mussels recovered after a one-week post-exposure period as >40% of fat mucket reburied and >60% had produced new byssal threads. During chronic exposures to lower CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations (32 to 118 mg/L), significant mortality of juveniles occurred at =60 mg/L CO<sub>2</sub>. Sublethal effects of carbon dioxide on growth were evidenced by reduced shell growth and body condition (dry tissue weight: shell length). Expression of chitin synthase, key for shell formation, was downregulated at 28 days of exposure. The results indicate that the response of freshwater mussels to elevated pCO2 will vary with exposure pattern. Acute exposure to even extremely high pCO2 appears to be less harmful to juvenile mussels compared to extended exposure to sublethal concentrations of CO<sub>2</sub>.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:20pm - 2:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

2:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-11) A Structural Activity Relationship (SAR) Approach to Identify New Chemical Controls for Invasive Aquatic Species
AUTHORS: Joel G. Putnam, Diane Waller, Justine Nelson– US Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center; Tammy J. Clark, Viterbo University

ABSTRACT: The search for new chemical controls for aquatic invasive species (AIS) that are efficacious and selective is needed to expand the arsenal of AIS control tools for resource managers. Chemical control options for dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) currently rely heavily on molluscicides that can be costly and/or harmful to nontarget species. The Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Knowledgebase was used to gather toxicity data for over 400 taxa covering five kingdoms and 7700 chemicals. Our search used structural activity relationships (SARs) to correlate chemical information with biological activity and predict new chemicals that are effective against dreissenid mussels. A database of chemical descriptors, such as molecular weight, solubility, and polar surface area, was created and published to link the chemical structure/information with species-specific toxicity. Toxicity trials have been initiated using a category of chemicals with high selective toxicity towards dreissenid mussels. Chemicals that produced significant mortality of dreissenid mussels were also tested on nontarget native freshwater mussels to determine selectivity. The results of toxicity trial will be combined with chemical characteristics (e.g., solubility) to identify toxicants that may be suitable for incorporation into a microparticle that is ingested by dreissenid mussels.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:20pm - 2:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

2:40pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-11) Update on Zequanox® Molluscicide as Management Tool for Invasive Dreissenid Mussels
AUTHORS: Seth Donrovich, Marrone Bio Innovations

ABSTRACT: Zequanox molluscicide, a biological control for invasive dreissenid mussels, has been available for commercial use in enclosed and open water systems for approximately six years. During this time, the product has undergone development and been strategized for a variety of applications and markets. The product was recently trialed in Florida on Mytilopsis leucophaeata, with enough activity to warrant further experimentation. A biobox demonstration trial has been conducted at a hydroelectric generating station in Spain, the first trial of Zequanox in the EU. Furthermore, recently developments in fermentation has led to reduced product costs, and treatment strategies continue to be optimized with dose and hold and low dose maintenance programs being implemented. MBI looks forward to continuing collaboration on product development for use in enclosed water systems, as well as looking to optimize the product for open water applications, including development of a slow release granule or encapsulated formulation.   

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:40pm - 3:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:20pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-11) Avoidance Behavior of Cold-, Cool-, and Warm-water Fish Species to Zequanox®, a Biopesticide for Dreissenid Mussel Control
AUTHORS: Matthew T. Barbour, James A. Luoma, Todd J. Severson, Jeremy K. Wise – US Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Zequanox® is an EPA-registered molluscicide for controlling populations of dreissenid mussels (zebra and quagga mussels). Zequanox® has demonstrated selective toxicity to dreissenid mussels. However, recent research indicates Zequanox can impact body condition and even cause mortality in non-target species.  We assessed the avoidance behavior of two species each of cold-, cool-, and warm-water fish (lake trout, brook trout, lake sturgeon, yellow perch, and fathead minnow) to Zequanox® at the maximum concentration allowed by the product label (100 mg A.I./L).  Naïve, juvenile fish were individually (n = 30) observed in a two-current choice tank through which treated and untreated water flowed simultaneously on either side.  Each individual fish was observed during a control period (20 min) with no treatment and two treatment periods (20 min each) between which the treated side was alternated to eliminate bias.  Positional data was collected and tabulated in real time with EthoVision® XT software.  Zequanox® concentrations and water quality (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance) were monitored during each trial.  Results from this research will help inform resource managers of the likelihood of fish to avoid Zequanox® treated areas, thereby assisting in the establishment of treatment-related risk assessments.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:20pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 2) Spawning Chronology and Environmental Factors Associated with Grass Carp Reproduction in the Sandusky River
AUTHORS: Nicole R. King, University of Toledo Lake Erie Center; Madeline G. Tomczak, University of Toledo; Patrick M. Kocovsky, US Geological Survey; Christine M. Mayer, University of Toledo Lake Erie Center; Song S. Qian, University of Toledo Lake Erie Center

ABSTRACT: Invasive grass carp have been documented in the Great Lakes since 1975. Although occasional individuals have been captured, it was assumed that most were sterile escapees from stocked ponds. However, spawning was documented in the Great Lakes in 2015 with the collection of eight eggs from the Sandusky River, Ohio, a Lake Erie tributary. In 2016 no eggs were found despite extensive effort, likely because no high discharge events occurred, and grass carp, like some other non-native carps, spawn during high flows. Monitoring continued in 2017 with increased sampling effort including the addition of a second net and adaptive sampling after egg detection to follow the spatial extent of the egg mass. In 2017 the Sandusky River yielded 7,000+ eggs during two high flow events. The earliest developmental stage, three (stage one= no cell division, thirty= hatch) occurred at the most upstream site and the latest developmental stage (twenty five) near the river mouth. Egg stages were more variable at downstream sites and during lower flows; slower moving eggs are more likely to hatch in the river and survive to larvae. The pattern of egg stages and spatial distribution over time indicated spawning likely occurred several times or over a prolonged period. Although the hydrograph indicates that grass carp spawn during high flows, it is unknown what proximal cues initiate spawning and what specific conditions increase the likelihood of egg survival. We back calculated spawning time based on egg stage, collection location, and temperature to determine what specific factors may trigger spawning. Furthermore, we examined the conditions that likely support egg hatching and survival within the river. Preliminary analysis indicates several spawning bouts over a <10 hour time period. The ability to predict the timing and location of GC spawning and recruitment potential has implications for future control efforts.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

3:40pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-11) Invasive Mussel Collaborative: Advancing Dreissenid Mussel Management and Control
AUTHORS: Erika Jensen, Great Lakes Commission; Sandra Morrison, U.S. Geological Survey; Ceci Weibert, Great Lakes Commission

ABSTRACT: The Invasive Mussel Collaborative is working to advance scientifically sound technology for invasive mussel control to produce measurable ecological and economic benefits. The Collaborative provides a framework for communication and coordination and is identifying the needs and objectives of resource managers; prioritizing the supporting science, implementing communication strategies; and aligning science and management goals into a common agenda for invasive mussel control. The founding members of the collaborative are the U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Commission, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. The Great Lakes Commission provides coordination and neutral backbone support for the collaborative. A broad membership base of states, provinces, tribal and other entities and a well-organized communication network facilitates the exchange of information between scientists, managers, and stakeholders. Strong connections with other regions outside the Great Lakes are in place to provide opportunities to share lessons learned. The Collaborative maintains a robust communication network to facilitate information-sharing on priority issues related to management and control of dreissenid mussels. The Collaborative also develops products and tools to support and advance management activities and will soon finalize a regional strategy to advance zebra and quagga mussel management for the Great Lakes region. This presentation will provide an update on these efforts.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:40pm - 4:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:40pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 2) Early Life History of Age-0 Silver Carp in the Mississippi River Basin
AUTHORS: Hae H. Kim, Quinton E. Phelps – West Virginia University Division of Forestry and Natural Resources; David Weyers, Sara J. Tripp – Missouri Department of Conservation Big Rivers Field Station.

ABSTRACT: Survival during early life history and recruitment adult structure population demographics. Numerous studies have demonstrated that riverine fishes are prone to variable early life survival and recruitment. High abundance of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin suggests great spawning and recruitment success. Previous studies have largely focused on characterizing adult Silver Carp populations. However, early life history has not been evaluated. Thus, we examined relative abundance, growth rates, hatch timing, and mortality of age-0 Silver Carp. We used data collected in mini-fyke nets by the Long Term Resource Monitoring element in three river upper Mississippi River reaches. A total of 154,092 age-0 Silver Carp were captured, ranging from 7.5-170 mm. Catch per unit effort ranged from 0-107 fish/net with an overall average of 11.86 (0.4) fish/net. Growth rates ranged from 0.74 – 1.81 mm/day with a total mean growth rate of 1.25 mm/d (0.03) mm/day. Daily mortality (z) ranged from 0.74-0.94 and averaged 0.832 (0.09). Silver Carp hatched within a 115-day window between 22 May and 15 September, with hatch peaking between 21 June and 19 July. Baseline demographic knowledge will aid managers control and limit Asian Carp spread throughout the Mississippi River Basin.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:40pm - 4:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

4:00pm EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 2) Potential Beneficial Effects of Invasive Silver Carp on Native Fishes
AUTHORS: Rebekah L. Anderson, Nathan J. Lederman – Aquatic Nuisance Species Program, Illinois Department of Natural Resources; Cory A. Anderson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Jason A. DeBoer, Illinois River Biological Station, Illinois Natural History Survey.

ABSTRACT: Substantial research attests to the injurious impacts invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molotrix) have on Midwestern U.S. river systems. Particularly, the dietary overlap between silver carp and native planktivores has resulted in declined condition and abundance of these species in areas where silver carp dominate the community (i.e., the lower Illinois River). However, additional research demonstrates silver carp may benefit native non-planktivorous fishes because of the carp’s ability to produce young at a large scale providing an abundant prey source for native piscivores, and their nutrient rich fecal pellets may enrich benthic forage quality for native benthivores. Potential positive effects of silver carp for native fishes are not fully understood, and research is limited in natural systems. Here we determine whether silver carp benefit non-planktivorous native fishes in the lower Illinois River (i.e., Peoria, LaGrange, and Alton pools) by examining native piscivore and benthivore body condition over time utilizing two standardized long-term data programs. We found a significant positive relationship between silver carp abundance and native benthivore body condition. Moreover, visual trends indicate increased body condition during and immediately after strong silver carp year classes (2008 & 2014) for both native piscivores and benthivores. Therefore density-dependent effects may exist where juvenile silver carp populations and benthic nutrient levels must reach a threshold before they are exploitable (i.e., beneficial) resources. We suggest more years of data that incorporate strong silver carp year classes may be needed to clarify potential positive effects of silver carp for native non-planktivorous fishes.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 4:00pm - 4:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

4:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-11) A Research Path to the Control of Dreissenids Throughout Entire Water Bodies
AUTHORS: Dan Molloy, Molloy & Associates, LLC

ABSTRACT: Dreissena mussels pose a significant challenge to infrastructures. One key element contributing to this challenge is the lack of a practical method for large-scale control of populations once they become established throughout a water body. As a result, facilities drawing water from such water bodies are subjected to constant reinfestation. Although concerns exist about environmental impacts of molluscicides, it is the prohibitive total project cost of open-water control programs that currently eliminates them as a mitigation option. Total project cost includes not only the molluscicide and its application throughout the entire water body, but also a myriad of other expenses often required in the overall control program, such as fund raising, administration, regulatory approval, post-treatment mussel mortality monitoring, report writing, etc. The research project reported herein offers a potential solution to this seemingly intractable problem of prohibitively high control program expense. The key to the low cost of this proposed control approach is that it does not require treatment of the entire water body. In contrast to traditional control programs: 1) only a minuscule portion of the infested water body’s volume would be treated (“seeded”) with the control agent; and 2) the control agent would subsequently amplify itself and self-spread throughout the water body. There is only one type of control agent capable of doing that – a live one, a biological control agent. This presentation describes the research conducted in the first year of a multi-year project to find such a control agent. The project is based in Eurasia and specifically designed to find a hypervirulent (i.e., extremely lethal), highly-specific dreissenid parasite that one day (following years of comprehensive environmental safety studies) would be introduced into North American water bodies where it will leave a trail of dead dreissenids in the path of its spread.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 4:20pm - 4:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

4:40pm EST

(NEW TIME) (SYMPOSIA-11) Efficacy Testing of Mussel Stopper® for Dreissena Mussels
AUTHORS: Lewis Steven Beckham, Barnacle-Blocker, LLC

ABSTRACT: The efficacy in situ of Mussel Stopper®, a brand name for a water insoluble, non-toxic, patented (10,053,584B1), US EPA labeled (89825-1) repellent for Dreissena mussels that can be applied underwater is being measured in a multi-location, multi-year randomized testing program. Testing apparatus consists of a PVC frame with six treatment sets of black ABS plastic coupons attached with cable ties. The ABS plastic coupons have one smooth side and one textured side. Treatments are untreated, component wax only and Mussel Stopper® applied according to labeled directions.  The test lattices are suspended in the water column in locations picked for high incidence of Dreissena mussels. The tests are periodically lifted out of the water and visually rated for percent coverage by the mussels. Since each test has two sides, a total of twelve replications per location are evaluated. After two years of testing, Mussel Stopper® treated coupons averaged 0.60% covered. Component wax only treated coupons averaged 17.7% covered and untreated coupons have averaged 84.8% coverage. Standard deviation is 38.4%. Testing continues, but so far Mussel Stopper® performance is significantly better than the checks.KEY WORDS: Mussel Stopper, Dreissena mussels, applied underwater, US EPA labeled, non-toxic, water insoluble

Tuesday January 29, 2019 4:40pm - 5:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

6:00pm EST

(CANCELLED) (P69) Validation of the Modeling Methodology for Projecting the Spawning Location of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon Idella in the Sandusky River
AUTHORS. Patrick M. Kocovsky, US Geological Survey; Nicole R. King, University of Toledo; Eric Weimer, Ohio Department of Natural Resources; Christine M. Mayer, University of Toledo; Song S. Qian, University of Toledo

ABSTRACT. Spawning of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Great Lakes basin was verified when eight genetically-confirmed, fertilized eggs were collected in the Sandusky River, a tributary to Lake Erie, in June and July 2015. Researchers predicted the fertilization location for those eggs was ~3.9 ± 1 km downstream of Ballville Dam between the State Street and Hayes Avenue bridges within the city limits of Fremont, Ohio. In June 2018, two pieces of evidence permitted verification of the model-predicted spawning location. First, fertilized Grass Carp eggs were collected at several sites from 3.3 km to 18 km downstream of the predicted spawning area 11-14 June. We used water temperature measured in the field at time of capture, developmental stage (± 1 stage) determined by microscopic examination, and published curves relating developmental time to water temperature to estimate time since fertilization for several hundred eggs. We then subtracted developmental time from capture time for each egg to determine the time the egg was fertilized and created a histogram of fertilization times. Second, two mature, diploid female and 14 mature, diploid male Grass Carp were captured by electrofishing conducted within the predicted spawning area during a prescribed management action conducted 12-14 June. Histograms of egg fertilization times overlapped with collection times for mature Grass Carp in the model-projected spawning area, providing additional evidence of the location of the spawning area and validating the modeling method used.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(CANCELLED) (P70) Abundance of Invasive Rusty Crayfish by eDNA and Traditional Survey in View of Fish Assemblages and Habitat Quality
AUTHORS. Kasia Kelly, Meredith B. Nevers, Murulee N. Byappanahalli – U.S. Geological Survey; Charles C. Morris, Joshua Dickey – National Park Service; Dawn Shively, Ashley Spoljaric – Michigan State University

ABSTRACT. Introduced rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) are frequently found in Lake Michigan tributaries during routine fish surveys.  While some locations are heavily occupied by the invasive crayfish, others support only small populations or resist invasion.  Certain streams may be more likely to attract establishment of rusty crayfish populations due to habitat type, existing fish communities, or other biotic and abiotic conditions.  Current monitoring for crayfish in rivers includes laborious sampling such as electroshocking or trapping, but the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) may present a more efficient method. While eDNA has the advantage of broader spatial coverage with less intense effort, the relationship between eDNA estimates and traditional surveys must be established. We explored the relationship between eDNA and electroshocking for detection and quantification of rusty crayfish, along with the interactions with habitat and water quality assessments and fish community surveys. The goal was to assess the usefulness of targeted eDNA in stream surveys and to attempt to model future invasion potential. Copy numbers of rusty crayfish DNA marker by quantitative PCR (qPCR) were positively correlated with electroshocking catch (Pearson R= 0.747, P= 0.033) and crayfish biomass (Pearson R= 0.845, P= 0.008).  The eDNA assay for rusty crayfish discerned between highly and scarcely infested sites in streams of northern Indiana. Fish assemblage data revealed similar species composition in infested and non-infested sites, frequently including green sunfish, creek chub, white sucker, rainbow and brown trout.  Neither eDNA marker nor crayfish count by electroshocking was correlated with any of the water chemistry measures or habitat quality scores, implying that rusty crayfish is highly adaptable to different habitat conditions. Future efforts will include development of a predictive model using the habitat data and fish species composition to predict the future spatial and temporal spread of rusty crayfish between watersheds.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(CANCELLED) (P72) Introducing the electrified dozer trawl for sampling Silver Carp and fish communities in a lotic system
AUTHORS. Jeremy Hammen, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Columbia Fish & Wildlife Conservation Office; Emily Pherigo, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Columbia Fish & Wildlife Conservation Office; Jason Goeckler, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Columbia Fish & Wildlife Conservation Office

ABSTRACT. Successful fish management depends on the ability to quickly and accurately assess populations. This can be challenging when managing invasive species, like Silver Carp, due to the difficulty in capturing these species. Conventional gears can be limited in their ability to efficiently achieve these assessments yet these conventional methods continue to be used, risking the ability to accurately assess a population in a cost effective way. To help address these challenges, an electrified dozer trawl was developed that combined conventional boat electrofishing with a rigid-frame push net. We compared catch rates, size structures, and species diversity from conventional boat electrofishing catch with the electrified dozer trawl in tributaries of the Missouri River, Missouri, to determine which technique more efficiently and precisely assesses a Silver Carp population. The electrified dozer trawl completed sampling transects in nearly half the time and captured twice as many Silver Carp as conventional boat electrofishing. Therefore, it could be included as an assessment tool. Additional benefits of the electrified dozer trawl could extend beyond Silver Carp into the management of native and sportfish. For example, species richness and species accumulation curves were similar between the two gears indicating the potential for use in assessing fish community. Applications for the electrified dozer trawl could benefit fisheries management for several species in many different environments and needs to be explored.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(P66) Investigating Burbot Diets in Lake Michigan Through Stomach Contents, Fatty Acids, and Stable Isotope Ratios
AUTHORS. Benjamin Leonhardt, Purdue University; Benjamin Turschak, Michigan Department of Natural Resources; Austin Happel, Colorado State University; Sergiusz Czesny, University of Illinois, Illinois Natural History Survey; Harvey Boostma, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Jacques Rinchard, SUNY-Brockport; Tomas Höök, Purdue University, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant

ABSTRACT. Over the past twenty years, Lake Michigan has undergone changes in community composition, nutrient dynamics, and system productivity due to reduced nutrient loading and the introduction of invasive species (e.g., round goby, Neogobius melanostomus; zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis). There is uncertainty in about how predatory fish in Lake Michigan will adjust their feeding patterns to the observed changes in forage fish abundance. Previous research efforts have primarily focused on the response of salmonids, there has been much less attention given to the piscivorous burbot (Lota lota), a native species of cod found in the cold, offshore regions of Lake Michigan. We investigated burbot feeding patterns in Lake Michigan using diet data from burbot stomachs collected in 2016 and 2017, as well as fatty acid composition and stable isotope ratios of burbot and round goby collected in 2016. Stomach contents revealed that burbot are primarily consuming round goby throughout Lake Michigan, with small contributions from sculpin (deepwater sculpin, Cottus cognatus; slimy sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and other fish. Similarities between the spatio-temporal patterns of fatty acid compositions and stable isotope ratios in burbot and round goby suggest long-term feeding on round goby by burbot. Prior to the invasion of dreissenid mussels and round goby in Lake Michigan, burbot were known to have a diverse diet which included alewife, sculpin, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), and stickleback (Gasterosteidae spp.); however, it appears that burbot now consume almost exclusively round goby, which will likely have implications for the connection of nearshore and offshore food webs in Lake Michigan.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(P67) Monitoring Invasive Goby Populations of Lake Michigan Using eDNA Metabarcoding
AUTHORS. Samantha Jurecki, Leslie Dorworth, Meredith Nevers, Muruleedhara Byappanahalli, Scott T. Bates – USGS Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station

ABSTRACT. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive fish species originating from the Black and Caspian Seas that has significantly impacted the ecology and economics of the Great Lakes region. Improving monitoring methods of the round goby will help in creating more efficient, cost-effective strategies for managing this invasive species. Recently, high-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to increase detection capabilities of fish species in aquatic systems. Metabarcoding approaches such as these allow for effective relative assessments of the abundances of individual species within a community, and thus are well suited for monitoring invasives. Here we use metabarcoding of eDNA to monitor invasive round goby populations in Lake Michigan. Our study focuses on a newly installed artificial reef at Jeorse Park (East Chicago, IN), examining the influence of these structures in supporting native fish populations over those of the round goby. Water samples for our study were collected at five onshore and offshore locations near the reef at Jeorse Park over the course of the 2018 summer season. In order to validate our methods in freshwater, we also took samples during traditional field monitoring expeditions as well as from indoor freshwater tanks with known communities of fish that are native to the Great Lakes. All samples will be sequenced this fall for analysis using the previously described MiFish/MitoFish bioinformatic pipeline.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(P68) Sensory Development and Navigation in Larval Grass Carp
AUTHORS. Amy E. George, Benjamin H. Stahlschmidt, Cayla L. Carlson – U.S. Geological Survey; Rafael O. Tinoco, Andres F. Prada – University of Illinois; Duane C. Chapman, U.S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT. Sensory input and systems are critical for organisms to respond to their environment, allowing movement to suitable habitat and potential escape from predators.  While many aspects of grass carp ontogeny have been described, neurosensory development remains unclear.  Previous studies have shown that phototaxis occurs in larval grass carp, which was a basis for the successful deployment of light traps as a collection gear for larval carp.  However, other cues, such as chemotaxis, rheotaxis, and phonotaxis have not been studied for grass carp larvae, and it remains unclear when a response would begin to occur.  Using behavioral tests, we looked at phonotaxis and chemotaxis from initial gas bladder inflation to the development of the second gas bladder chamber (the period where larvae leave the mainstem river and move into nursery areas). Rheotaxis was examined from hatch through gas bladder inflation by quantifying orientation in a laboratory flume.  Grass carp larvae showed no preference for any chemosensory stimulus tested, and auditory stimuli elicited very little reaction except at frequencies above 1000hz and volumes up to 30 decibels higher than ambient noise.  Larvae showed a consistent orientation facing into the flow at most developmental stages, suggesting that rheotaxis may be the earliest developing sense and most critical for navigation. By knowing how and when different sensory systems develop in grass carp larvae, control measures may be developed that attract or deter larvae from specific areas.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species

6:00pm EST

(P71) Genetic Analysis and Germination Trials of an Invasive Weed (Gypsophila paniculata) Found in Two Distinct Ecosystems
AUTHORS. Sarah K. Lamar, Charlyn G. Partridge – Grand Valley State University's Annis Water Resources Institute

ABSTRACT. Baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata) is an invasive herbaceous perennial that has established throughout much of North America. Within the Michigan coastal dune system the weed effectively outcompetes native plant species adapted to the unique environment and forms monotypes that threaten the federally protected Pitcher’s Thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Baby’s breath has also established populations in the sage-steppe of central Washington state, a distinct habitat characterized by equally harsh environmental conditions. To understand the invasion success of G. paniculata between these two locations we assessed environmental, genetic, and traits differences associated with plants from these different environments. In the summer of 2018, soil, tissue, and seeds were collected from these two locations. Soil chemistry was analyzed to characterize these two unique environments, microsatellite markers were used to identify genetic similarity among these populations, and a common garden germination study was conducted to examine differences in germination rates.Preliminary results show that despite establishing in geographically and environmentally distinct habitats, as characterized by soil data, G. paniculata populations in both Chelan, Washington and Petoskey, Michigan are more genetically similar than initially expected. These results can be viewed in a larger context by assessing existing herbarium records of G. paniculata to attempt to track its spread across N. America. Germination study results further characterize differences between these two potentially locally-adapted populations. These data can be used for the greater purpose of informing targeted management of this invasive species.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Invasive Species
 
Wednesday, January 30
 

10:20am EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 3) Silver Carp Population Genetics from Tributaries of a Large Midwestern River
AUTHORS: Samuel Schaick, Eastern Illinois University; Cassi Moody-Carpenter, Eastern Illinois University; Aaron Schrey, Georgia Southern University; Katie Miller, Georgia Southern University; David Wahl, Illinois Natural History Survey; Robert Colombo, Eastern Illinois University

ABSTRACT: Silver Carp are a non-native fish species that have deleterious effects on the ecosystems they invade. Because of their destructive nature, fisheries managers devote substantial time and effort to limit the spread of these fishes. Better understanding patterns of Silver Carp reproduction and dispersal can help to better manage this invader. To determine spawning locations, we used drift nets and larval push nets in three tributaries the Wabash River to capture larval Hypophthalmichthys (Silver and Bighead Carp) in 2016 and 2017. Further, we used microsatellite loci to determine if genetic differences existed between larval Hypophthalmichthys in our three study tributaries. In total, 1,246 Hypophthalmichthys were collected from three tributaries, with the Little Wabash River and Embarras River producing roughly 83% and 16% of larvae. Having large enough sample sizes at two sites on the Little Wabash River and one site on the Embarras River, we performed genetic analyses and found all three sites had high levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, we found minimal inbreeding or outbreeding present. The middle Little Wabash and lower Embarras River samples were found to be genetically different. We expect this research to improve our understanding of Asian carp reproduction and help fisheries professionals to better mediate their spread.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 10:20am - 10:40am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM B

11:00am EST

(SYMPOSIA-14) Beyond “Donors and Recipients”: Impacts of Species Gains and Losses Reverberate Among Ecosystems Due to Changes in Resource Subsidies
AUTHORS: Scott F Collins, INHS; Colden V Baxter, Idaho State University

ABSTRACT: Pervasive environmental degradation has altered biodiversity at a global scale.  At smaller scales, species extirpations, invasions, and replacements have greatly influenced how ecosystems interact by affecting the exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms.  We examined how species losses and gains affect the exchange of resources (materials and/or organisms) within and among ecosystems.  We specifically consider how changes that occur within an ecosystem may trigger effects that reverberate (e.g., directly, indirectly, via feedbacks) back and forth across ecological boundaries and propagate to multiple habitats or ecosystems connected via exchange of materials and organisms.  Our synthesis provides a cursory overview of ‘openness’ as it has been addressed by community ecologists and then we briefly characterize the conceptual development ecological frameworks used to examine resource exchanges between ecosystems. We then describe multiple case-studies and examine how species losses and gains affect food web structure via resource exchanges between ecosystems, with particular emphasis on effects spanning land-water boundaries. 

Wednesday January 30, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
HOPE BALLROOM A

11:00am EST

(FISHERIES: INVASIVE SPECIES 3) Control of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in Chicago Region to Reduce Risk of Spread Across Great Lakes Basin
AUTHORS: Erin O'Shaughnessey, Rachel Egly, Reuben Keller – Loyola University Chicago

ABSTRACT: Crayfish are the largest freshwater invertebrate and pose a serious threat to the ecosystems in which they invade. They have been shown to decrease macroinvertebrate density and diversity, displace native crayfish, and alter fish communities. We have identified a reproducing population of red swamp crayfish (Procambarusclarkii)in the Chicago Area Waterways System (CAWS). This species has been introduced in Lake Erie, small ponds in Wisconsin, and streams in Michigan, as well as in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Due to the proximity of the CAWS to Lake Michigan and undisturbed streams with native crayfish populations, P. clarkii is potentially able to spread into more areas. During summer 2018, we began a removal effort ofP. clarkii in the North Branch of the Chicago River and in the North Shore Channel. Additionally, we tested for the optimal number of nights for traps to be left in the water to achieve the highest catch rate and used mark and recapture methods to attempt to test the distance that crayfish travel in this system. In the North Branch of the Chicago River, we have recaptured 51 crayfish, traveling an average distance of 2.53 meters per night. In the North Shore Channel, we have recaptured 11 crayfish, traveling an average distance of 6.41 meters per night. Previous sampling indicated that the average CPUE (catch per unit effort) in this system was 0.843. The current CPUE of P. clarkii in our removal study area is 0.453. 

Wednesday January 30, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM B