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Welcome to the interactive web schedule for the 2019 Midwest Fish & Wildlife Conference! Please note, this event has passed. To return to the main Conference website, go to: www.midwestfw.org.

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CONFERENCE SCHEDULE UPDATES & CHANGES: As a result of the prolonged government shutdown, we experienced a number of cancellations and changes to the schedule. Cancellations and changes are listed here (as of January 26, 2019). 

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Behavior [clear filter]
Monday, January 28
 

10:20am EST

(CANCELLED) (FISHERIES: BEHAVIOR & PHYSIOLOGY) Metabolism and Movement: A Link to Partial Migration in Brook Trout
AUTHORS: Jacob E. Bowman, Jill B.K. Leonard – Northern Michigan University.

ABSTRACT: Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) express variability in movement strategies, including partial migration. Partial migration has gained attention because individuals that migrate can express polymorphism, growing larger than their stream counterparts. Partial migration and life history-related movement strategies may be related to individual variability in metabolic parameters; however, this has not been well documented in the field. We performed field metabolic rate determination on native brook trout in the Rock River in Alger County Michigan during spring and summer 2018, including both resting and active metrics. Brook trout were then tracked using PIT tags with stationary and backpack telemetry throughout the summer with a 46% recapture rate. Movement patterns were compared to metabolic rate rankings within fish. Each fish’s metabolic status was ranked relative to other individuals measured. The continuous field resting and field maximum measures were positively related (p<0.0001). The ranking sytem held this same correlation (p<0.0001). This relationship in metabolic parameters follows what is expected in individual variation of metabolism. Our work will allow us to understand at what level individual variation in metabolic phenotypes and associated movement phenotypes are related. This research will contribute to understanding the resiliency of valued life history strategies and morphotypes such as migration.

Monday January 28, 2019 10:20am - 10:40am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM C

10:40am EST

(FISHERIES: GREAT LAKES 1) Using Sonar to Describe Spawning Habits of Tributary Spawning Lake Whitefish in Green Bay, Lake Michigan
AUTHORS: Andrew Ransom, Dr. Patrick Forsythe, Dr. Chris Houghton – University of Wisconsin-Green Bay

ABSTRACT: A resurgence of the Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population within the waters of Green Bay has been documented in recent years despite overall low and stable numbers reported for Lake Michigan. Furthermore, large numbers of adult Lake Whitefish have been observed within major tributaries during the time of spawning in late fall. While our understanding of the ecology and behavior of Lake Whitefish in Lake Michigan is improving, knowledge gaps exist with these new river spawning ecotypes. Among these knowledge gaps are microhabitat selection in spawning locations, as well as timing and drivers of migration. In order to bridge these gaps, we used using Adaptive Resolution Imaging Sonar (ARIS) to monitor relative fish abundances in 10 sample locations with different physical characteristics (ie. flow rates and substrate type) on the Fox (n=5) and Menominee (n=5) Rivers in Wisconsin. To confirm egg deposition in spawning locations, suction sampling was also conducted throughout each river. Sampling was conducted in November and December of 2017 and 2018, in order to encompass the entire spawn period. Results will be used to influence potential restoration efforts for similar ecotypes across the Great Lakes.

Monday January 28, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

10:40am EST

(FISHERIES: BEHAVIOR & PHYSIOLOGY) The Expression of Bluegill Behavioral Types in Chronically Heated Environments
AUTHORS: Tyler Grabowski, University of Illinois; David Wahl, Illinois Natural History Survey; Joe Parkos, Illinois Natural History Survey; Dalon White, University of Illinois; Anthony Porreca, Illinois Natural History Survey

ABSTRACT: Global climate change is expected to exert selective pressures on behavioral phenotypes within freshwater ecosystems through environmental changes associated with chronic warming of water temperatures. We compared the behavioral profiles of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) from three power-plant cooling reservoirs to the behavioral tendencies of bluegill from three ambient reservoirs to investigate whether long-term exposure to increased water temperatures influences the expression of behavioral phenotypes. Power-plant cooling reservoirs were considered as model systems for global warming due to their year-round elevated water temperatures (~5°C) when compared to ambient reservoirs. We quantified activity, boldness, and exploration through 30-minute assays in a common laboratory setting that tested the spatial usage and response of individual fish to a suite of situations involving novel items and a predator, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). For each assay, multiple measurements were recorded for each behavior, leading to the development of a principal component score (PCA) for activity, boldness, and exploration for each individual. PCA scores for each behavior were compared between groups (heated or ambient) and then used to determine how well behaviors correlated to one another within groups. Distinct behaviors did not differ between bluegill from heated and ambient lakes. However, we found significant directional changes between groups for the correlations of activity and exploration as well as for boldness and exploration. These results suggests that chronic exposure to warming can influence the expression of behaviors, providing insight for how the behavioral composition of bluegill populations may be modified in chronically warmed systems.

Monday January 28, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM C

11:40am EST

(WILDLIFE: URBAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT) Effects of Harassment on Behavior and Movement of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in an Urban Park
AUTHORS: Ryan Askren, Mike Ward – Illinois Natural History Survey; Scott Beckerman, Craig Pullins – USDA Wildlife Services

ABSTRACT: Increasing abundances of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in urban areas have led to a host of human-wildlife conflicts including feces deposition, human health risks, and aircraft collisions. Harassment is the primary tool wildlife managers use to deal with nuisance goose abundances yet has been deemed ineffective at changing goose abundances in an area or reducing issues in longer time periods. However, the effects of harassment at the individual level are poorly studied, especially in winter when harassment may have more dire consequences. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of targeted harassment on 1) average daily movement distances, 2) habitat use, and 3) overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) as an index of energetic expenditure. To examine effects of harassment on individual Canada geese we used data from 41 geese marked with GPS transmitters in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Harassment efforts were conducted December 2017- February 2018 by US Department of Agriculture – Wildlife Services personnel at an urban park near Midway International Airport as part of ongoing efforts to reduce risk to air traffic. We compared average daily movement distance and ODBA of geese that in and out of harassment areas. In addition, we quantified differences in proportional habitat use of geese between treatments. Canada geese subjected to harassment moved more than unharassed geese in December (x¯<sub>harassed </sub>= 338.2 ± 19.3 SE, x¯<sub>unharassed </sub>= 211.3 ± 8.4 SE), January (x¯<sub>harassed </sub>= 409.0 ± 2.5 SE, x¯<sub>unharassed </sub>= 269.0 ± 11.0 SE), and February (x¯<sub>harassed </sub>= 447.0 ± 36.4 SE, x¯<sub>unharassed </sub>= 232.8 ± 13.5 SE). Results of this study suggest that winter harassment of Canada geese in winter has effects on the behavior and energetic expenditure that could result in lower survival and reduced conflicts in urban parks where targeted harassment is conducted.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:40am - 12:00pm EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM C/D

11:40am EST

(FISHERIES: BEHAVIOR & PHYSIOLOGY) Exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms Impairs Prey Recognition and Capture Success in a Larval Freshwater Fish
AUTHORS: Jessica Ward, Gina Lamka, Autum Auxier, Hannah Mullinax – Ball State University

ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue-green algae in freshwater systems with adverse impacts on both human health and the environment. At least 8 classes of toxins produced by cyanobacteria have been identified with the potential to affect organismal physiology and function. Of these, ß-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) are potent neurotoxic metabolites of interest because they are a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans. However, sensorimotor integration is also critical to the successful survival and reproduction of resident aquatic organisms, and these neurodegenerative cyanotoxins have the potential to modify the expression of simple and complex behaviors within individuals and the outcomes of interactions between individuals in aquatic environments. One way that this can happen is through changes that compromise an organism’s ability to correctly perceive, process and respond to relevant biotic stimuli (e.g., predators, prey, or mates). In this study, we examined the effects of DABA on the foraging behavior of a larval fish (Promelas pimephales). We exposed larvae to a range of environmentally-relevant concentrations of DABA for 21 days. We then tested larvae in prey-capture assays to assess the effect of neural disruption on the outcomes of predator-prey interactions, and recorded individual prey strikes using a high-speed camera to assess changes in cognitive and motor aspects of hunting behavior. Compared with nonexposed fish, exposure to DABA was associated with reduced foraging success and an altered ability to recognize prey. These data improve our understanding of how aquatic contaminants affect stimulus-response pathways though their effects on brain function, and suggest that even subtle contaminant-induced shifts in perception, processing, or response can have marked effects on fitness.

Monday January 28, 2019 11:40am - 12:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM C

1:40pm EST

(HUMAN DIMENSIONS: WILDLIFE) Psychological Involvement and Constraints to Hunting Participation: Implications for R3 Research
AUTHORS: Adam Landon, Illinois Natural History Survey; Craig Miller, Illinois Natural History Survey; Jerry Vaske, Colorado State University; James Absher, Environmental Sociologist

ABSTRACT: Research on recruitment, retention, and re-engagement (R3) has become increasingly important for fish and wildlife management agencies that are seeking to bolster participation in hunting and fishing, and ensure fiscal sustainability through increased license sales. To date, however, much of the literature surrounding R3 has been ad hoc with respect to theory explaining patterns of recreation behavior. In this study, we drew on the human dimensions literature to understand the influence of psychological involvement and perceived constraints on hunters’ commitment to the activity as potential new explanatory frameworks for R3 research. We hypothesized that hunters’ psychological involvement in the activity positively influenced their prolonged engagement, operationalized from patterns of hunting license purchase, and that perceived constraints had a negative effect. Data for this study were drawn from a large-scale cohort-based survey of Illinois hunters (n=6,000). Hunters were randomly sampled in age cohorts at two-year intervals based on their date of hunting license purchase over the period 2006-2018. Results suggested that psychological involvement may play an important role in hunters’ commitment to the activity, but that hunters placed different levels of importance on different aspects of involvement. Findings further suggested that perceived constraints negatively influenced commitment, whereby more constrained hunters’ were less engaged over time. Results of this study have implications for mechanism for R3 activity. Although demographic changes underpin broad patterns of hunting license sales, additional factors like involvement and constraints may account for commitment to the activity.

Monday January 28, 2019 1:40pm - 2:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM B

2:00pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-03) Determine What Fishes Adult Sea Lamprey Parasitized by Barcoding DNA in Their Feces
AUTHORS: Nicholas Johnson, U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center; Chris Merkes, Joel Putnam – U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

ABSTRACT: Sea lamprey are controlled in the Great Lakes to reduce damage to valuable fisheries. Sea lamprey control is effective, but damage caused by remaining sea lamprey is poorly defined because because sea lamprey feed on blood and traditional gut content analysis has not possible.  Here, we test the concept that sea lamprey diet can be quantified by barcoding DNA in sea lamprey feces.  Specifically, we determined the percentage of fecal samples containing measureable DNA from host fishes when collected from (1) recently fed parasitic sea lamprey, (2) fasted parasitic sea lamprey transitioning to the adult stage, and (3) adult sea lamprey captured from a spawning stream.   If successful, the method could help managers better interpret lake trout wounding rates by providing insight as to how often hosts alternative to lake trout are targeted by sea lamprey. Ultimately, our vision is that adult sea lamprey assessment in each Great Lake may be able to produce an annual estimate of abundance and an estimate what fishes that cohort of adult sea lamprey were feeding on, so that fish managers could estimate damage caused to specific fish stocks.

Monday January 28, 2019 2:00pm - 2:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C
 
Tuesday, January 29
 

10:40am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-09) Development of Carbon Dioxide as a Tool for Invasive Fish Management
AUTHORS: Aaron Cupp, U.S. Geological Survey; David Smith, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Cory Suski, University of Illinois; Kim Fredricks, U.S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is being developed as a new fisheries control chemical. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fish consistently avoid areas of elevated CO<sub>2</sub> when given access to other freshwater sources. Results from these studies suggest that resource managers could apply CO<sub>2</sub> at pinch-point or other key management locations within rivers to block upstream migration of invasive fishes (e.g. Asian carps, sea lamprey, round goby). A full-scale demonstration of this deterrent technology is being planned for 2019 at a navigational lock to better determine the costs, effectiveness, safety and overall feasibility of CO<sub>2</sub> as a fish deterrent method. In addition to using CO<sub>2</sub> as a behavioral deterrent, other recent studies have also demonstrated that CO<sub>2</sub> is an effective non-selective piscicide (fish toxicant). Carbon dioxide injected under-ice using various delivery methods was effective at reducing the overwinter survival of several non-native cyprinids. Further development of CO<sub>2</sub> as a piscicide could give managers an inexpensive, safe, and effective method to control invasive fish populations. Results from previous studies using CO<sub>2</sub> as a behavioral deterrent and piscicide will be discussed with specific focus on upcoming field studies aimed at transitioning CO<sub>2</sub> into a useful management tool.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

1:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-09) Effects of Sociability and Conspecifics on CO2 Avoidance in Fish
AUTHORS: Emily K. Tucker, Cory D. Suski – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) has been proposed as a non-physical deterrent to prevent the movement of fishes in freshwater systems. Previous studies have shown that fish of different species tend to avoid CO<sub>2</sub> at 50,000-75,000 µatm, but there is also wide variation between individual fish in the amount of CO<sub>2</sub> required to elicit avoidance. In many of these previous studies, fish were tested for CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance individually. Many fish species, including bigheaded carp, are frequently found in groups, and it is not known if the response of groups of fish to CO<sub>2</sub> exposure is consistent with the response of individuals. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to define CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance in fish that are part of a social group relative to when tested individually. Bluegill were first tested individually in a "shuttle box" choice assay, to define their initial avoidance threshold. All bluegill were then assigned to groups for a social network assay to determine the social personality type of each fish. Finally, each social group was tested together in the shuttle box to define the CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance threshold of the group. Results indicate that fish in a social group that are exposed to CO<sub>2</sub> will shuttle at an average of 6 times lower partial pressures of CO<sub>2</sub> (pCO<sub>2</sub>) than fish tested individually, and that fish in groups had significantly less individual variation in CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance thresholds than fish that were not in groups. However, social personality type was not associated with shuttling behavior. Our results indicate that individual variation in CO<sub>2</sub> avoidance is greatly reduced when fish are in social groups. This has important implications for the use of CO<sub>2</sub> in fisheries management, as less CO<sub>2</sub> might be needed to deter groups of fish relative to deterring individuals.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 1:20pm - 1:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM C

2:20pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-07) Tracking the Movements and Interactions Among Salmonids in Lake Ontario
AUTHORS: Sarah Larocque, University of Windsor; Tim Johnson, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry; Dimitry Gorsky, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Jon Midwood, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Aaron Fisk, University of Windsor

ABSTRACT: In Lake Ontario, five salmonid species are part of an economically important recreational fishery, with two native species undergoing bi-national restoration efforts. Understanding species distributions, movements, and habitat use can help management in maintaining a sustainable fishery as well as improve native species restoration. Thus, it is important to quantify the salmonid movements in relation to each other in Lake Ontario. Acoustic telemetry enables us to better understand the spatial habitat use of fish, particularly in large lakes where it is difficult to monitor. This endeavor is made possible through a large collaborative effort with academics and government on both sides of the border, unified by the Great Lakes Acoustic Telemetry Observation System (GLATOS). In 2017, 40 individuals across five salmonid species have been tagged in western Lake Ontario, with an additional 50 individuals tagged in 2018. With the ever-expanding receiver array in the western and eastern basins, we are beginning to see lake-wide individual movements of some species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Overall, telemetry data is informative on various levels including describing cross lake and overwintering movements which represents a gap in our understanding of Great Lakes salmonid ecology.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:20pm - 2:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM A

2:40pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-07) Do Growth Histories Determine Migration Patterns in Walleye?
AUTHORS: Richard T. Kraus, US Geological Survey - Lake Erie Biological Station; Michael J. Hansen, US Geological Survey - Hammond Bay Biological Station; Matthew D. Faust, Ohio Department of Natural Resources - Division of Wildlife; Graham D. Raby, University of Windsor; Christopher S. Vandergoot, US Geological Survey - Lake Erie Biological Station; Charles C. Krueger, Michigan State University

ABSTRACT: Migratory fish movement can be classified as partial or differential migration, contingent behaviors, or other types of alternative migratory tactics. Growing evidence suggests that multiple variables, including metabolic and growth trajectories, risk-reward tradeoffs, personality, social interactions, and current physiological state underpin such modalities. We combined acoustic telemetry with sclerochronology to investigate if and how growth was associated with seasonal habitat use of a migratory freshwater fish, Lake Erie Walleye Sander vitreum. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling of back-calculated length-at-age from fin spines revealed individual growth trajectories that varied among spawning locations. Further, logistic principal components analysis of acoustic telemetry detections revealed stock-specific patterns in seasonal habitat use. Our results highlighted that individuals and groups of individuals within a stock are likely subjected to varying levels of fishing mortality based upon their migration pattern. For managers, differences in growth associated with spatial modalities in movement may translate into overexploitation of population segments.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 2:40pm - 3:00pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM A

3:20pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-07) Numerical Analysis Method for Converting Telemetry Patterns into Engineering Design Guidance: Lessons from 20 Years of Government and Private Sector Projects
AUTHORS: R. Andrew Goodwin, U.S. Army Engineer R&D Center

ABSTRACT: Telemetry projects are often burdened with the need to convert measured fish movement patterns into actionable management guidance that can be quickly used for improving the engineering design of waterways infrastructure, water quality, and/or flowrate. With increasing attention on non-salmonids, one can assess in hindsight the methods that led to significant new insight of juvenile Pacific salmon and how these methods are presently being used to understand fish movement in the Midwest. I explain how interpretations of fish behavior through the lens of ELAM modeling analyses has changed over the past 20 years and how the ELAM is presently being applied to understand species in the Midwest. The ELAM model is a numerical analysis providing an independent viewpoint on fish movement behavior, uniquely separate from traditional statistical insights, which can serve as one of the pillars for informing future design and management of waterways and infrastructure. The ELAM model uses a non-trivial process for converting fish telemetry data into a mechanistic explanation for how/why animal movement patterns emerged the way they did. The ELAM method provides one of the strongest means for forecasting plausible fish response to future design and management actions, recognizing that all methods for predicting behavior are imperfect. The ELAM model is a cost-effective means for vetting future designs and management actions using fish telemetry as input in the early stages of water resource alternatives formulation.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM A

3:20pm EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-11) Avoidance Behavior of Cold-, Cool-, and Warm-water Fish Species to Zequanox®, a Biopesticide for Dreissenid Mussel Control
AUTHORS: Matthew T. Barbour, James A. Luoma, Todd J. Severson, Jeremy K. Wise – US Geological Survey

ABSTRACT: Zequanox® is an EPA-registered molluscicide for controlling populations of dreissenid mussels (zebra and quagga mussels). Zequanox® has demonstrated selective toxicity to dreissenid mussels. However, recent research indicates Zequanox can impact body condition and even cause mortality in non-target species.  We assessed the avoidance behavior of two species each of cold-, cool-, and warm-water fish (lake trout, brook trout, lake sturgeon, yellow perch, and fathead minnow) to Zequanox® at the maximum concentration allowed by the product label (100 mg A.I./L).  Naïve, juvenile fish were individually (n = 30) observed in a two-current choice tank through which treated and untreated water flowed simultaneously on either side.  Each individual fish was observed during a control period (20 min) with no treatment and two treatment periods (20 min each) between which the treated side was alternated to eliminate bias.  Positional data was collected and tabulated in real time with EthoVision® XT software.  Zequanox® concentrations and water quality (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance) were monitored during each trial.  Results from this research will help inform resource managers of the likelihood of fish to avoid Zequanox® treated areas, thereby assisting in the establishment of treatment-related risk assessments.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:20pm - 3:40pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM A

3:40pm EST

(WILDLIFE: TURTLES) Survivability of Head-Started Blanding’s Turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) In Canada’s Rouge National Urban Park
AUTHORS: Katherine Wright, Crystal Robertson, Paul Yannuzzi, Shannon Ritchie, Andrew Lentini, Bob Johnson, Rick Vos – Adopt-A-Pond Wetland Conservation Programme, Toronto Zoo

ABSTRACT: A head-start program for Blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) was launched in 2012 by Toronto Zoo’s Adopt-A-Pond Wetland Conservation Programme and partners in an effort to recover a local population in the Rouge National Urban Park (RNUP). As per a Population Viability Analysis (PVA) in 2013, reaching a self-sustaining population required raising 50 turtles per year for two years each at a 60 female: 40 male ratio over 20 years. The head-start turtles are incubated and raised in a protected zoo environment, which includes a month in outdoor enclosures to acclimate to natural conditions. Then, a soft-release enclosure is used with half of the cohort for in-situ to acclimate to their new wetland prior to release into the wild, while a hard-release method is used for the other half (no in-situ acclimation). The release site is known habitat for Blanding’s turtles and is in close proximity to travel corridors, though many head-start turtles remain in the wetland area in which they were released. No significant difference has been observed between home ranges of soft- and hard-release turtles. The number of turtles released per cohort has increased each year (2014: 10, 2015: 21, 2016: 36, 2017: 49, and 2018: 49), as have cumulative survival rates (2018 data is still being incorporated). Survival, movement, and habitat use patterns are monitored by radio tracking a subset of turtles from each release cohort, which occurs three times per week from May-August and once per month from December-April. The number of tracked turtles from each cohort changes yearly as more turtles are released. In 2018, a total of 48 turtles were tracked out of the 165 that have been released to date. This long-term project will use adaptive management to improve husbandry, field research, habitat restoration and community outreach as the project progresses.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 3:40pm - 4:00pm EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM A/B

4:00pm EST

(SYMPOSIA-07) Incision Healing Rate of Shortnose Gars Using Novel Surgical Methods for Transmitter Implantation
AUTHORS: Sarah King, Illinois Natural History Survey; Jeffrey A. Stein, Illinois Natural History Survey/University of Illinois

ABSTRACT: Knowledge regarding the movement of wild fishes provides valuable information of their spatial ecology, habitat use, and migration patterns. Telemetry methods utilizing either radio or acoustic signals require that a transmitter be affixed to the animal, introducing the potential for adverse effects on the natural movements of study animals. Intracoelemic transmitter implantation has been documented to have limited adverse effects and is considered the best method for long-term tracking relative to gastric insertion or external attachment. Surgical procedures describing transmitter implantation are well known in the literature, however, these methods cannot be used on more primitive fishes such as Lepisosteids due to the complexity of their armored, ganoid scales. External transmitter attachments have only been used on gars because it is not possible to breech ganoid scales using traditional surgical methods. Recently, Midwood et al. (2018) described a new procedure to implant transmitters in the body cavity of Longnose Gars in Lake Ontario. The surgical procedure was deemed successful based on detection rates of the majority of fish up to 3 months post tagging; however, individual post-surgery data was unavailable due to the lack of recaptured individuals over time. To further our knowledge on the survival and healing rate using these novel surgical techniques, we conducted a sham surgery study on Shortnose Gar in a controlled laboratory setting to monitor post-surgery impacts over time. Forty-seven gar were subjected to one of three treatment groups; control, sedation only, or sedation and sham surgery, and monitored over a period of 68 days. Results from our study provide insight to the expected healing rate and survival of gars using intracoelemic transmitter attachment methods in a field setting.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 4:00pm - 4:20pm EST
HOPE BALLROOM A

6:00pm EST

(P16) Grass Carp Thermal Maturation and Proximal Cues for Spawning in Ponds
AUTHORS. Jeffrey C. Jolley, Duane C. Chapman, Curt G. Byrd, Patrick M. Kocovský –U.S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reproduction has occurred in the Lake Erie basin; understanding spawning cues could be useful in designing control methods and determine which Great Lakes tributaries are potential spawning locations.  Grass carp broadcast spawn and require flowing water to keep their semi-buoyant eggs suspended; spawning cues are unknown. At least 633 cumulative degree days = 15 ºC (ADD15) has been reported necessary for the maturation of gonads.  To validate this estimate, we evaluated oocyte maturation of 67 and 50 females in experimental ponds in 2017 and 2018, respectively.  In 2017, the first female with ripe oocytes occurred >800 ADD15, occurring 7 days after 633 ADD15.  In 2018, the first female with ripe oocytes occurred >1,000 ADD15, over 2 weeks after 633 ADD15.  Estimated threshold for 50% of females to have ripe oocytes was 906 ADD15 in 2017 and 1,265 ADD15 in 2018.   April 2018 had record low temperatures followed by record high May temperatures, suggesting that the sequencing of accumulation of thermal units may also be important.  A pond mesocosm was used to simulate river conditions and variable spawning cues (i.e., flow, turbidity, temperature).  Spawning occurred during the first trial, when fish were injected with hormones (HCG, carp pituitary), was confirmed by spawning behavior recordings (chasing, rubbing) in high velocity areas, and collection of fertilized eggs.  Spawning also occurred when the mesocosm was held in a stagnant condition (fish were hormone injected).  Fish spawned at the deep outlet kettle where the water input was also located.  Grass carp did not spawn in additional trials, but water temperatures may have increased beyond the suitable range.  Future trials will focus on replicating the results of trial one, precise temperature control, and further variation of environmental cues.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior

6:00pm EST

(P17) Roundup Exposure and Warm Temperatures Reduce Activity of Orconectes rusticus Crayfish
AUTHORS. Alyssa J. Ulrich, Caleb T. Austin, Amber A. Burgett – Wittenberg University

ABSTRACT. Agricultural runoff into aquatic habitats such as streams, wetlands, and ponds can impact the survival and behavior of aquatic organisms. Additionally, climate change and warming temperatures in some areas can increase the stress, change behavior, and also increase mortality for some aquatic species. Using the species, Orconectes rusticus, we examined the impact of a sublethal dose of roundup and warmer temperatures to examine how this impacted their behavior towards conspecifics. Roundup and a warmer temperature reduced the overall activity of crayfish. There was no impact of Roundup on overall aggression towards conspecifics, however temperature did reduce aggression levels. Alterations in crayfish activity level as a result of roundup and warming temperatures could impact their role in the stream food web, as they potentially become less territorial, less adept at foraging, or shift their diet towards less active foraging methods. Crayfish behavioral changes could ultimately impact the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior

6:00pm EST

(P18) Role of the Lateral Line in Male-Male Territorial Competition in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales Promelas
AUTHORS. Hannah TerMarsch, Jessica Ward – Ball State University

ABSTRACT. The lateral line system of aquatic vertebrates is made up of mechanoreceptors called neuromasts that are arranged in a series of rows along the head and body, and serve to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the water. Although the structure and use of the lateral line system varies among species, the ability of receivers to exploit mechanosensory information has been shown to affect the outcome of interspecific interactions (e.g., predator evasion, or prey capture). However, comparatively less is known about how mechanosensory information might influence organismal decision-making during intraspecific interactions, such as reproduction. In this study, we investigated the role of the lateral line during male-male territorial interactions in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Male fathead minnows compete for territories and display several aggressive displays, including charging, tail flicking, and broadside (lateral) threats—all of which displace water. Receivers who exploit such information could more accurately assess the condition or level of aggressive motivation of their opponent. We pharmacologically manipulated the lateral line of breeding male minnows using aminoglycoside antibiotics and conducted a behavioral experiment that paired males with and without access to mechanosensory information in territorial contests. Our results indicate that mechanosensory signals are likely an important component of male-male aggressive communication and provide insight into the evolution of complex signals in fishes. These data also suggest that antibiotics in streams and rivers have potential to alter intraspecific interactions in natural populations, with significant ecological and evolutionary effects.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior

6:00pm EST

(P19) Harmful Algal Blooms Impair Innate Predator-Evasion Behavior in a Freshwater Fish
AUTHORS. Gina Lamka, Hannah Mullinax, Autum Auxier, Jessica Ward – Ball State University

ABSTRACT. Cyanotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) are commonly detected in freshwater systems in the United States and abroad. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic exposure of fish and other aquatic organisms to cyanotoxins may induce sub-lethal effects on behavior, negatively influencing individual fitness. Along with reducing recruitment of young into the population, exposure may increase the rate of transfer up the food chain, posing significant health risks for humans. For example, exposure to neurodegenerative cyanotoxins through the consumption of contaminated foods has been linked to sporadic increases in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the potential for similar cognitive and motor impairment in aquatic organisms, the effects of neurodegenerative cyanotoxins on the performance of fish in real-world contexts is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the sub-lethal effects of a common algal neurotoxin, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), on the innate predator-evasion performance of larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. Eggs and larvae were exposed to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of DABA (0, 1, 5, 25, 125 and 625 µg/L) for 21 days. On day 22, behavioral assays were conducted by administering a non-point source vibrational stimulus to an arena containing a focal larva. Responses were filmed using a high-speed camera at 1000 fps, and perceptual and motor components of the response were analyzed separately. Compared with nonexposed fish, exposure to DABA significantly modulated the response of larvae to a simulated predator. This research is among the first to attempt to understand how neurodegenerative cyanotoxins affect the behavior of aquatic organisms in real-world contexts and could be used by managers to predict the fate of aquatic communities in areas afflicted by HABs.

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior

6:00pm EST

(P20) Exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms Impairs Sensorimotor
AUTHORS. Ryan Seymour, Jessica Ward, Autum Auxier, Hannah Mullinax – Ball State University

ABSTRACT. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue-green algae that impact Midwestern freshwater systems, important environmental and economic resources. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to neurotoxic compounds can induce sub-lethal behavioral and central nervous system (CNS) changes that have potential to affect individual fitness. The long-term goal of this research is to evaluate the significance of emerging algal neurotoxins for fish populations and aquatic communities. A first step toward this goal, this project used a low-dose, lab-controlled exposure regime to quantify the effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) on the sensorimotor performance of embryos, and 21-day-old larvae . Despite reports of impaired motor function in humans linked to the consumption of contaminated fish, the effects of these compounds on fish themselves is largely unknown. Embryo motor activity and prey capture efficiency decreased with increased exposures to the cyanotoxins. The results will fill critical gaps in knowledge regarding the short- and long-term effects of sub-lethal exposure to algal neurotoxins on fish and provide direct insight into the factors affecting routes of human exposure and health risks

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior

6:00pm EST

(P21) Evaluating Nest-switching Behavior and Microhabitat Partitioning of Southern Flying Squirrels in West-central Illinois
AUTHORS. Katherine Rexroad, Western Illinois University; Shelli Dubay, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point; Christopher Jacques, Western Illinois University

ABSTRACT. Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans; SFS) are forest-dependent, nocturnal, non-hibernating, arboreal mammals that den in tree cavities.  Previous studies suggest that several structural attributes of overstory hardwood trees are essential to SFS life-history needs, especially locomotion, den site selection, and food sources.  Nevertheless, little information is available on the influence of vegetation structure on microhabitat use across fragmented Midwestern landscapes.  To date, no studies have evaluated whether proximate factors (e.g., structural differences in overstory vegetation) influence microhabitat partitioning between activity areas of male and female SFS across Midwestern landscapes.  The goal of this research is continue the long-term SFS research program to better understand the additive or antagonistic effects of intrinsic factors (sex, age, nutritional condition), microhabitat features, habitat fragmentation, and parasite loads on home range dynamics and nest-switching behavior of SFS.  Specific project objectives include 1) quantifying nest occupancy patterns, and rates of nest switching/reuse by SFS between sexes and across activity areas, 2) investigating associations between microhabitat (tree diameter-at-breast height, snag density, tree height, availability of mast trees), habitat fragmentation (patch size, distance to nearest habitat edge) and home range (size, shape) metrics of SFS, and 3) estimating prevalence and intensity of infection with parasites in local populations of SFS.  Increasing basic knowledge of interactions and interrelationships between intrinsic and habitat effects on SFS nesting patterns, particularly in regions characterized by low habitat quality and animal densities will provide greater insight into future conservation strategies for SFS along the western boundary of their geographic range.  

Tuesday January 29, 2019 6:00pm - 9:00pm EST
SUPERIOR BALLROOM C/D
  Poster, Behavior
 
Wednesday, January 30
 

10:20am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-16) Agriculture and Wildlife Coexistence in the Midwest United States
AUTHORS: Gary J. Roloff, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University

ABSTRACT: The Midwest region of the United States supports abundant wildlife and diverse agriculture, with both substantially contributing to regional and national economies and livelihoods. Recreation associated with wildlife has a positive economic impact, estimated to generate over $34 billion annually for 8 Midwestern States. The annual market value of crops and livestock exceed $76 billion. Wildlife often represents a cost to farmers through crop and livestock depredation and food safety risks, but some producers benefit through recreational leasing of their properties. State level wildlife damage data are limited and outdated, but suggests that agricultural losses in the Midwest are significant. Resources available to producers in the Midwest for integrated wildlife damage management (IWDM) vary greatly, but are generally underutilized or ineffectual, and in some cases simply nonexistent. Challenges include political and social barriers to managing valued wildlife species as pests, complex regulatory jurisdiction over wildlife damage control, lack of dedicated personnel assigned to wildlife damage response, and limited IWDM tools. Many IWDM tools do not scale to crop production contexts, provide only limited or temporary efficacy, or are not economically viable. The Agriculture and Wildlife Coexistence symposium will focus on updating our understanding of wildlife damage assessments, mitigation, and philosophies with a focus on wildlife-agriculture co-existence in the Midwest region.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 10:20am - 10:40am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM D

10:40am EST

(WILDLIFE: AVIAN) Post-Fledgling Habitat Selection of an Endangered Species in Texas
AUTHORS: Evalynn M. Trumbo, Michael P. Ward, Jeffrey Brawn – University of Illinois

ABSTRACT: Understanding associations between habitat and the demography of endangered wildlife is essential for effective management, and the age or life-stage of an individual adds complexity to these associations. The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter "warbler"), is an endangered neotropical migrant that breeds only in the contiguous juniper-oak forests in central Texas, of which many studies have evaluated how extensive habitat loss and fragmentation affect adult demography, yet no research has been conducted on post-fledging life stages and their habitat preferences, specifically microhabitat. For birds, the post-fledging stage is critical for sustaining species’ populations and many threats to survival during this life-stage are influenced by habitat type. To understand survival and habitat use, we studied the warbler population at Fort Hood military installation in central Texas. We monitored warbler nests until fledging and deployed one VHF transmitter per nest (n=8 and n=15, for 2017 and 2018, respectively). We tracked fledglings ~4 weeks after fledging. 15 of 23 (65%) of the fledglings survived the observation period. We obtained 1126 vegetation samples measuring various habitat characteristics for the entirety of the study (2017-2018). We compared habitat measurements between fledgling locations and random locations away from the fledgling location. Fledglings appear to select habitat that contains higher canopy cover (86% ± 0.6%, vs. 77% ± 1%). Ground cover, although correlated with canopy cover, differs from non-used habitat (29% ± 0.9%, 37% ±1.05%). Vertical vegetation density in the understory does not differ among used and non-used habitat. Most likely fledglings are selecting for canopy cover since it affords more protection from predators. Using this information for habitat selection will allow managers to implement techniques that promote higher canopy cover in GCWA habitat, hopefully providing a mosaic of necessary traits to support all life stages during the breeding season.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 10:40am - 11:00am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM C

11:00am EST

(WILDLIFE: AVIAN) Species Discrimination and Habitat Selection in Blue-winged and Golden-winged Warblers
AUTHORS: Stephen A. Tyndel, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Dr. Jinelle Sperry – CERL-ERDC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Dr. Michael P. Ward, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Natural History Survey

ABSTRACT: Blue-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora cyanoptera) are closely related species that hybridize frequently and produce fertile offspring yet tend to mate assortively and often hold overlapping territories. Information on how conspecific and heterospecific interactions impact settlement and habitat selection for both species is lacking.The purpose of this study was to examine the role of social information, specifically song, in habitat selection in both Blue-winged and Golden-winged warblers. Our first objective was to determine if conspecific and heterospecific song can be used to induce settlement in Blue-winged and Golden-winged warblers across their range and whether the response of each species to heterospecific song differs in allopatric and sympatric populations. Our second objective was to determine whether Blue-winged and Golden-winged Warblers males discriminate against heterospecific song and whether discrimination against heterospecific song differs in in allopatric and sympatric populations. To address the first objective, we broadcast songs of Blue-winged warblers and Golden-winged warblers in an area where only Blue-winged warblers breed, where only Golden-winged warblers breed, and where both species breed. To address the second objective, we conducted a simulated territorial intrusion experiment to compare how breeding territorial males of each species respond to heterospecific song in an area where only Blue-winged warblers breed, where only Golden-winged warblers breed, and where both species breed. Data analysis is ongoing but preliminary results for the first objective suggest the strongest response to conspecific cues occurred in the allopatric population of Golden-winged warblers with equivocal results found elsewhere. Responses to heterospecific cues were similarly ambiguous. Preliminary results for the second objective suggest strong species discrimination in sympatry and weak discrimination in allopatry. Ultimately our results will provide important insight into the relationship between these species and the role of social information in habitat selection.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
CENTER STREET ROOM C

11:00am EST

(HUMAN DIMENSIONS: FISHERIES 2) Role of Environmental Context and Individual Behavioral Type on Angling Vulnerability
AUTHORS: Toniann D. Keiling, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Michael J. Louison, McKendree University; Cory D. Suski, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

ABSTRACT: Global recreational fishing involves millions of anglers capturing millions of fish, and has the potential to negatively impact fish populations either through direct means (i.e. through incidental mortality or harvest), or through indirect means, such as the removal of specific behavioral types. At present, the specific mechanism(s) that define why fish strike fishing lures are unknown, as are how environmental factors influence catch rates. Understanding the factors that motivate fish to strike a lure will not only help predict catch rates, but will also help define how fisheries mortality and harvest can shape populations. The goal of this study was to define how behavioral type and prey availability interact to influence angling vulnerability, using largemouth bass as a model. To accomplish this goal, we first performed behavior assays on largemouth bass to place them along a ‘bold’ vs. ‘shy’ continuum, and then transferred fish to one of two ponds, one with a generous supply of prey (fathead minnows) and the other with no prey. Largemouth bass in the ponds were then angled for 8 days. Results indicated that prey availability only weakly influenced capture success in ponds. Rather, size (total length) was the strongest predictor of fish capture with larger fish more likely to strike lures, despite the fact that mean size varied by only 1.2 cm across captured and uncaptured individuals. Results are further discussed in the context of angling vulnerability, and how selective harvest may shape fish populations and aquatic ecosystems.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 11:00am - 11:20am EST
VETERANS MEETING ROOM C/D

11:40am EST

(CANCELLED) (SYMPOSIA-16) Nonlethal Tools for Managing Wolf Predation on Livestock
AUTHORS: Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, Stewart W. Breck – USDA-WS-National Wildlife Research Center

ABSTRACT: Abstract: Predation on livestock by wolves (Canis lupus) is a growing issue as wolf populations continue to recover in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Lakes region. Nonlethal methods to mitigate depredation events are more publicly acceptable than lethal removal and promotes local community support. In addition, nonlethal techniques recognize the value of individual animals and maintains stability of the social system within a wolf pack. We describe various nonlethal tools and methods being evaluated and utilized to reduce wolf predation on livestock. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are examined, and current research findings are presented. Management of depredations on livestock will be necessary for continued coexistence of wolves, humans, and livestock.

Wednesday January 30, 2019 11:40am - 12:00pm EST
CENTER STREET ROOM D